Roger Vadim, Gus Van Sant, Agnès Varda, Paul Verhoeven, Dziga Vertov, King Vidor, Jean Vigo, Luchino Visconti, Josef von Sternberg, Erich von Stroheim, Lars von Trier



Ugás, Marité


THE KID WHO LIES (El Cico que Miente)        B+                   90

Venezuela  Peru  (100 mi)  2011                                    Official site


The director is a Peruvian filmmaker with a background from the Cuban film industry, which suggests she’s familiar with depictions of social realism, which are put to good use here from a country that only makes about a dozen films a year, as this is largely a Venezuelan road movie highlighted by the exquisite remote locations and the use of local non-professionals from the region that inhabit the screen, where she captures the vitality of the region through the people that populate these small ocean villages.  The impetus for making the movie was recreating the impact of the 1999 Vargas mudslides on the northern Caribbean coast of the country, a natural disaster of torrential storms killing more than 10,000 people, leaving many neighborhoods buried under 10 feet of mud while others were simply swept away to sea.  Reminiscent of Kiarostami’s LIFE AND NOTHING MORE (1992) from his Earthquake Trilogy, which made brilliant use of the aftereffects of the Manjil-Rudbar earthquake of 1990 in Iran, also using actual locations to accentuate his film, Ugás takes a different approach, telling the story through the wrenchingly personal travails of a young 13-year old boy, Iker Fernández, who has been left orphaned by the tragedy wandering alone through the countryside.  Mixing flashbacks of what he remembers about his past, some of which was told to him by his father when they lived in a gutted building complex afterwards, and some of which he had to discover for himself, the movie moves backwards and forward in time, all part of his personal journey.  


In the opening scene, shot in the enormous waves of the ocean, the boy and his dog struggle to survive, where in his anxiety he unfortunately loses the dog, his sole companion, a harrowing moment that offers an introductory portal to the mood of tragedy that awaits the viewer, as the boy will find nearly everyone he meets has been affected by the mudslide.  But since he’s such a young kid, people generously offer him food and water, people who have little themselves, which is a prominent theme of the film, where he has opportunities to become part of extended families, but he keeps searching for any trace of his missing mother.  As he meets people along the way, he reveals what he remembers about the tragedy, which keeps changing along the way, as he embellishes certain aspects of the story or changes it outright, where it soon becomes clear he really doesn’t know the full truth, as he was only 3 when it happened.  As he hitchhikes or is offered rides, he keeps searching for a woman who sells oysters, who he believes could be his mother, though much of what he knows about her was told by his abusive father who had little use for her after she left him.  But he survived afterwards, while she may have lost her life protecting the boy.  But he left his father soon after realizing he was being told a pack of lies.  Part of the road journey is adding to the mythology of what will become his true life story.


One of the intriguing aspects of the film is the tone of naturalism, beautifully shot by Micaela Cajahuaringa, where the villages are tiny, but inhabited by authentic people who have likely never been on camera before, where we witness local festivities, annual tributes to the Patron Saint of Disasters, which includes music and decorated boats.  Nothing feels forced, where the fluid change of scenery or the abrupt discovery of new characters is enhanced by the kindness offered by the women, where some cook for him, others sing, others try to make him their own, taking the place of their own missing son, while others try to exploit his labor services.  He’s a friendly guy, but he catches on quickly when people try to take advantage of him, another familiar theme of the film, as the movie is filled with people who exploit those who have been hurt the most, thinking they are easiest to manipulate.  Perhaps the most lasting friendship he makes in the film is with a local black fisherman kid, Aldrin Sterling, who continually calls the boy Blondie, taking to him right away as he’s equally friendless and alone, but he’s a bit older and has an easy-natured style of hustling about him, where he’s always trying to con somebody.     

What’s most fascinating is the film introduces us to a side of Venezuela rarely seen, rich in character, idiosyncrasies, traditions, and especially the music, much of which is beautifully captured by Camilo Froideval.  The real discovery is the poignancy of the boy, who readily accepts help but refuses pity, where Fernández is captivating throughout.  Ugás mentioned she tested over 200 young boys for the part and one of the questions she asked each of them was if they ever lied?  Fernández was the only one who acknowledged he lies.  And when asked why, he simply stated:  to survive.     


Residents watch the premiere of "El Chico que Miente" outside a municipality clubhouse in Ocumare

Residents watch the premiere of "El Chico que Miente" (The Kid Who Lies) outside a municipality clubhouse in Ocumare February 25, 2011. For the past four decades, Ocumare, a small Caribbean fishing village with a population of 7000, did not have a movie theatre but it did not stop them from being portrayed as the protagonist of the first Venezuelan film to participate in February's Berlinale International Film Festival in Berlin. On Friday night, about 1,000 residents of the village gathered at the Plaza Bolivar to watch the premiere of " El Chico que Miente" (The Kid Who Lies) by Peruvian director Marite Ugas. Picture taken February 25, 2011.

THE KID WHO LIES  Shanghai International Film Festival

A 13-year old kid starts a journey along the Venezuelan coast and, in order to survive, he captivates people by constantly reinventing his own story in the mudslide. His true past, however, will gradually become clearer. Ten years ago the mudslide took his mother, now he thinks he can find her. He has a difficult road ahead of him, but there is also a world yet to be discovered.

Director's CV: She was born in Lima, Peru. After a Degree on Communications from U. Lima, she joins the first generation of EICTV, Cuba, where she directs BELEN NEIGHBOURHOOD. Between 1988 and 1995 she directs a number of short films, such as COTIDIANO. Her first feature film, AT MIDNIGHT AND A HALF, 1999, co-directed with Rondon, was released at Tokyo Film Fest, participates in more than 40 International Film Festivals, and received five Opera Prima Awards (LALIFF). As producer and editor, she releases in 2007 POSTCARDS FROM LENINGRAD, with 22 international awards. Her second film, THE KID WHO LIES will be released in 2011.

Variety Reviews - The Kid Who Lies - Film Reviews - Berlin - Review ...  Peter Debruge

With: Iker Fernandez, Francisco Denis, Maria Fernanda Ferro, Beatriz Vazquez, Laureano Olivarez, Dimas Gonzalez, Gladys Prince, Aldrin Sterling, Yugui Lopez, Beto Benites, Valerie Weilheim.

The story changes every time someone asks "The Kid Who Lies'?" 13-year-old protag what happened to his parents. In time, however, the boy's personal history begins to take shape as he travels across Venezuela to find his missing mother and reveal the truth about the forces that destroyed his family. Director Marite Ugas uses the intimate -- but only intermittently engaging -- tale of a young runaway as metaphor for those still suffering from the 1999 Vargas mudslides, a natural disaster that claimed more than 10,000 victims. Though pic played well in Berlin, it won't stray far from the fest circuit.

Despite its titular teenager (the magnetic heart of the film, unaffectedly played by newcomer Iker Fernandez), "Kid" isn't really aimed at young auds, as the opening-scene drowning of a dog immediately suggests. Instead, Ugas reaches out to those still trying to reconcile the mudslides' effect by rearranging her road-movie premise into a more complex (and potentially confusing) nonlinear form: The boy's progress through a series of raucous encounters with young people met en route is interrupted by dark flashbacks that belie the serious side of this otherwise carefree coming-of-ager.

Camera (color), Micaela Cajahuaringa; editor, Ugas; music, Camilo Froideval; art director, Matias Tikas. Reviewed at Berlin Film Festival (Generation 14plus), Feb. 15, 2011. Running time: 99 MI

BBC News - The films inspired by Venezuela's 1999 disaster  Sarah granger from BBC News in Caracas, February 9, 2011


Vargas tragedy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Marité Ugás |  director website


Ujica, Andrei

Romania (180 mi)  2010


A Dictator in His Own Words and Images  Dennis Lim interviews the director from the New York Times, May 20, 2010


The Fatima Mansions - Blues For Ceauşescu  YouTube (4:35)


Ullman, Liv


PRIVATE CONFESSIONS                                    A                     98

Sweden  (127 mi)  1997
Written by Ingmar Bergman, a follow up screenplay on the lives of his own parents, after 1992’s BEST INTENTIONS and 1993’s SUNDAY CHILDREN, with lots of close ups, a la PERSONA, and magnificent acting by Pernilla August and Max von Sydow, a tearful and heartfelt look at love and death.  The script appears to have been written specifically for von Sydow, as he and Bergman are soul mates, featuring the beautiful imagery of Sven Nykvist.  


FAITHLESS                                                 B                     88                                                                               

Sweden  (154 mi)  2000


I have to say I was a little disappointed here, as I was fully prepared to love this film, as I did  BEST INTENTIONS, and most particularly PRIVATE CONFESSIONS, my personal favorite of the bunch - largely due, I think, to the phenomenal performance in a somewhat supporting role of Max von Sydow to Pernilla August's lead, who Lena Endre bears an uncanny similarity with in oh so many ways, not the least of which is her maturity and pure magnificence in acting, but despite the brilliance of the actors here, I’m sorry, I felt there was something missing, emotionally, and I attribute it to the intellectual style and form of the presentation, sort of a Bergman version of Beckett's "Krapp's Last Tape," with Erland Josephson (Bergman) filling in for Krapp - no pun intended...this was also an extremely similar style, conjuring up his own personal demons, conjuring up the clown in the film  IN THE PRESENCE OF A CLOWN - but in all those films there was an overwhelming passion that ran throughout the film.  However here, as we keep returning to the writer's empty pages which he has to fill, and the use of the continuously interwoven narratives, the sequences simply stop altogether as we return to the writer and the passion is not sustained, we see 4 walls and the emotional connection keeps being drained out of what's happening on screen.  I would compare his use of reading from the entries of a diary in this film with CRIES AND WHISPERS where the screen images matched the unbelievable power and intensity of the what's  being read from that diary, and there were simple fade outs, fade ins to the next sequence, the rhythm kept a continuous burst, like rekindled emotional flames, alive on the screen.  In FAITHLESS the flame would go out and have to be re-lit again and again, so by the time Lena Endre pours her guts out, it's to an empty page - no one is responding, no one - really - is even listening, it's a soliloquy.  Now that may very well be the point in this film - but that's really overly intellectual and about the exercise of writing itself, which is not a particularly dramatic enterprise, a man sits alone in a room for extremely long periods of time, the action that he is writing about happened long ago and the sense of urgency in his life has long since passed, it's now a reflection passing overhead, like a cloud, that's about to drift out of sight, death whispers to him at night, & his memories - all that is keeping him alive -  make him tremble meekly with fear.  I guess intellectually, I comprehend that, in my head, but in my heart, I didn't really feel connected to any of them, and I found that so sad, all subjective content was extracted so that pure objective evil could prevail - the evil in men's souls - and while her summoned presence could forgive him, she also says:  "I do not much like your Marianne."  Did you see young Bergman grilling her all night, looking like the sadistic Hannibal Lector himself?  I found it hard to "like" that, even with such an eloquent artistic touch.  First it was de Sade in QUILLS and now Bergman.  Has sadism become nouvelle art? I found myself watching a play about Bergman's private diary entries thinking it was rather presumptuous of him to put it all on screen and I wondered why we were being subjected to it all.  This one was really different for me as it was truly punishing.


BFI | Sight & Sound | Film of the Month: Faithless (2000)  Philip Strick from Sight and Sound, February 2001   

Liv Ullmann's Bergman-scripted Faithless shows sex as power and pain

The enigma that is Faithless has been created by at least seven story-tellers, none of whom can be trusted. At its simplest, the film consists of the fantasies of an ageing writer who constructs - perhaps from his remembered past - a quartet of recalcitrant fictions: three adults, one child, and their involvement in a series of misdemeanours, in particular an extra-marital affair. Although of central concern, the child can be presumed an innocent bystander, already garrulous with her own stories but also anxious to learn from example. This scenario offers a painful if open-ended meditation on the pleasures and perils of infidelity and its impact on the next generation. If this were all, the single and singularly unhelpful lesson Faithless appears to offer would be that parents can only be relied on to indulge in strange behaviour which we seldom survive unscathed.

The director, however, has other claims. "I don't really believe," says Liv Ullmann, "that a film should have a message", but to avoid the risk of reducing Faithless to a collection of inconsequential anecdotes, she grants that an observer's response is likely to be: "I will treat people around me more carefully." Less tritely, she also suggests that "the light in the story is that we can forget the hours that were full of suffering" - yet the film's characters are laden with painful memories which show little sign of fading away. On the contrary, a more persuasive theme might be that past errors are recycled, with fresh suffering as a result. Faithlessness, in short, is more pain than gain.

From a child's point of view, the peculiar compulsion that drives adults to disregard this truism must seem incomprehensible. The void at the centre of Faithless is caused by the hardly avoidable discretion with which sexuality is portrayed, or rather overlooked until the shock of explicit description when the wife tells of her husband's attack (he rapes her when she agrees to meet him to discuss the custody of their child). Earlier the illicit couple squirm beneath the overhead camera like specimens on a slide, frantic to cover themselves from our gaze or perhaps from that of a higher authority. Erotic tension, which should provide the pulse for their affair, is instead implied by a banality of suffocating red drapes, a silk nightgown and some sinuous bedsteads. Sex itself, instead of being its own reward, becomes symbolic - of complicity, habit, power, control and punishment.

As a result, the rationale behind the film's assorted betrayals appears less physical than hedonistic, a desire for what Marianne, the devoted wife, describes as "fun". Why she should suddenly propose such diversion to David, the platonic friend of all the family, is a mystery as much to her as to the rest of us, and grows no clearer from what we learn of her secure marriage to composer Markus and attentive motherhood. (David's initial proposal to her, on the other hand, is recognisably in keeping with an amiable lack of principle.) "Can't we just see how it goes?" she lightly asks her agitated lover, who after their first romantic adventure wants total possession. And she later declares with some amusement, before the repercussions begin, that having two men in her life is easier than she expected. Both in risk-taking temerity and in vulnerability she shares characteristics with the heroines of Ullmann's other films, ensnared in a muddle of longings like the sufferers in Sophie (1992), Kristin Lavranssdatter (1995), Private Confessions (1997) and the yet-to-be-filmed Anne Frank project. But her vocabulary, as in Private Confessions, originates elsewhere - with Ingmar Bergman.

Scripted by Bergman, who even lends his name to the reclusive author portrayed by his frequent on-screen alter ego Erland Josephson, Faithless offers itself, with appealing guile, as authentic autobiography. The first signs are that it reconstructs the summer of 1949, when the volatile genius, two families already in collapse behind him, turned 31 and gatecrashed another marriage by way of a Parisian interlude, seemingly with few pangs of conscience. His new partner's husband furiously attempted to win her back, finally resorting to rape. Afflicted (as he tells it in his memoir The Magic Lantern) by retrospective jealousy, Bergman gave the girl not the slightest sympathy, later married her, and in due course ran off with Harriet Andersson. Over the years a gradual penitence overtook his disregard for conventional restraint, charted in his films by a succession of anguished couples who, like the wretched Almans in Wild Strawberries (1957), subject each other to endless humiliation.

Bergman couldn't forgive himself, according to Ullmann, for the "rape and rage" episode, yet to interpret Faithless as exorcism would seem mistaken. "Much of it," she says of his script, "did not happen, that I am sure of", while in his Magic Lantern description of the crucial scene Bergman himself admits, "I have never found out what really happened." On screen, Marianne's description of her ordeal is luridly detailed, enough to raise questions about the level of her compliance but also aligning her with the many confessors in Bergman's work (the nurse in Persona, 1966, for instance) who reveal dark secrets direct to camera. If, by simple omission (other than the occasional church bell) Faithless reflects on the melancholy condition of a literally faith-less society - despite Bergman's claim to be no longer concerned with such matters - the ritual penance of the confessional is scrupulously observed by all the film's characters.

In an unexpected reversal, the screen Bergman asserts at one point that he never met Marianne's husband Markus, whose manipulative influence turns out to have infected their collective behaviour for so long he almost has best claim to being the author of the piece. Since we've been given every reason to suppose that 'Bergman' and David are one, and we know David has been a family friend for years, this denial is either mischievous or mistaken, either a fanciful confirmation that the characters are primarily fictions dreamed up by 'Bergman' (we only properly hear Markus' voice by letter, after all), or an absent-minded throwback to the realities of 1949. Or it could simply be that remembered fact (the visit to Paris) is in the course of the drama overtaken by the demands of fantasy. In the film Marianne has an abortion; in fact, their child grew up to be Ingmar Junior who (according to The Magic Lantern) loathed his father. Which 'truth' is the more painfulf?

Marianne's luckless daughter Isabelle, to whom Ullmann claims to have devoted more attention than Bergman when she revised his screenplay, similarly has no place in The Magic Lantern (the custody battle was fought over two small sons). Even so, her forerunners are to be found everywhere else in Bergman's work, from the entranced redhead who punctuates The Magic Flute (1975) to the wandering youth in The Silence (1963), the raptly attentive schoolboy at the end of To Joy (1949, a preface to Faithless just as Scenes from a Marriage, 1973, is its clearest rehearsal), and, of course, Fanny and Alexander (1982). The collision between generations is as much a part of Bergman's iconography as rowing boats, music boxes, the proscenium arch and the Fårö shoreline. Knowing them well, Ullmann fits them all into her film.

It looks just as Bergman might have filmed it: formal, precise and demanding of its cast an astonishing surrender to a gallery of unflinching close-ups. Nothing in the camerawork is overstated, although every lighting change (gold to blue at the flick of a switch, ominous shadows when a window blind is lowered) is of calculated significance. When the camera moves, it's with reluctance (in keeping with the mature Bergman's dislike of tracking shots) but with exemplary relevance, as in the prowl around an apartment that ends up in the bedroom or the sudden retreat into the air above the writer as he recognises the full horror of what he's done.

If Ullmann has unquestionably appropriated from her years with Bergman (and Josephson) a magnificent empathy with her players, she is also rewardingly attentive to visual detail. Note, for instance, the framing of the hospital sequence, the deployment of sculptures in the lawyer's office, or the timing of the 'discovery' as the lovers giggle helplessly in embarrassment and desperation. By design, the final Mozart theme plays to a halt during the end credits, not two shots earlier while the writer wanders towards the sea. It is the project, with all its ambiguities, that has been put to rest, not the troubled spirit that conceived it. 

Peter Bradshaw on Trolösa, The Guardian, 9 February 2001

Ulmer, Edgar G.

Edgar G. Ulmer • Great Director profile • Senses of Cinema  Erik Ulman, January 24, 2003


Kaleidoscope of the B-film Director: Edgar G ... - Senses of Cinema  Lance Duerfahrd, September 19, 2009



USA   (65 mi)  1934


The Black Cat  Josh Vasquez from Slant magazine

Based loosely on one of Edgar Allen Poe's most disquieting tales, 1934's The Black Cat is one of the neglected jewels in Universal Studios' horror crown. Edgar Ulmer's melancholy, twilight film of the confrontation between two disturbed World War I veterans, one warped by an evil faith and the other a shattered ghost of a man driven by revenge, and the young couple that becomes entangled in their twisted game, is a fable of modernity darkened with war, obsession, and madness. Much like the other tone poem of the Universal horror series, Karl Freund's gorgeously mannered tragedy The Mummy, Ulmer's deeply elegiac film is a grief stricken work, a spiraling ode to overwhelming loss, both personal and universal.

Decades after betraying his regiment during a savage battle in the war, Hjalamer Poelzig (Boris Karloff), mad architect and satanic priest, erects a nightmarish fortress of a house over the mass grave of the 10,000 men he betrayed. Dr. Vitus Werdegast (Bela Lugosi) calls it a "masterpiece of construction built on the ruins of the masterpiece of destruction." Werdegast, one of the only survivors of the battle, returns after 15 years in a Russian prison to enact his revenge on Poelzig, who not only proved a traitor but a thief as well, having spirited away Werdegast's wife and daughter soon after the doctor's imprisonment. Ulmer's starkly palatial direction ably realizes the operatic melodrama of the haunting premise, filled as it is with a dream-like collision of layers of meaning.

The Black Cat's impressionist wasteland is composed of equal parts severe allegory and pulp poetry and has the feel of a sustained epilogue, like the slow process of sifting through ruins after some great cataclysm. "Are we not both the living dead?" Poelzig asks Werdegast at one point as the camera seems to float through the deep space of Poelzig's house, his voice god-like and dislocated in time. Poelzig is the lord of an underworld of his own making, a fabrication of plastic, steel, glass, and postmodernist design, hell imagined as a collection of strange angles. Yet while Karloff's leering madman is portrayed as overcome with an almost rapturous, narratively disconnected evil, he too is damaged by history, the end result and embodiment of its own savagery.

While the narrator in Poe's short story avenges himself on a cat—one that his insanity urges him to believe is tormenting him by bricking the sad creature behind a wall in his basement—Poelzig metaphorically bricks up the past by burying it under his house, attempting, in an act of hideous hubris, to control death itself. If a certain poeticization of the Great War has imagined the conflict as a kind of nexus point for the unraveling of history, a sudden, terrible conflation of calculated modernity and some primeval, almost supernatural, ritual of death, then Poelzig is the figure at the heart of the darkness, staring further on into our century, the devil and the engineer.

This rawly symbolic work is at the same time filled with clichés of the genre, the mysterious, distant "other land," in this case a wounded, vaguely Eastern Europe, the sullen, withdrawn mad "scientist," the hulking man-servant, the young couple whose innocence is threatened. What is so compelling about The Black Cat is that the film embraces its own generic contents while incorporating them into something far richer, far deeper than simply adventure or mystery. In the end, the film becomes that rarest of all things, a masterpiece of popular art. Both Karloff and Lugosi deliver two of the finest performances of their careers, as does David Manners, who while pleasant to look at was certainly one of the most banal of the leading men of the genre.

Ulmer, a director who worked in many genres and under quite varied conditions, was given one of his rare opportunities to work with a relatively sizable budget, and the result puts many of the director's contemporaries, used to working in a well financed Hollywood system, to shame. Filled with startling visuals—perhaps one of the single greatest images to come out of the Universal horror cycle is the breathtaking image of Poelzig's collection of dead women hovering in glass cases as he walks among them stroking his cat, admiring his "pussy" as it were—and meticulously designed as one of the genuine triumphs of the first period of expressionist cinema, the film has been unfortunately overshadowed by inferior films from the Universal horror period. The Black Cat's ability to peer around the corners of its own genre notions of master criminals and horror fiends allows for a film that is both luxuriously mysterious and strangely relevant, the shadow of a social critique within the elaborate body of a work of baroque horror.

DETOUR (1945)                                                      B+                   91

USA  (68 mi)  1945


Did you ever want to forget anything? Did you ever want to cut away a piece of your memory or blot it out?  You can’t, you know. No matter how hard you try. You can change the scenery, but sooner or later you’ll get a whiff of perfume or somebody will say a certain phrase or maybe hum something. Then you’re licked again!                        —Al Roberts (Tom Neal)


While the IMDb catalog lists 52 films directed from 1930 to the mid 1960’s, director Edgar G. Ulmer worked on closer to 127 features, starting his career in Germany as a set designer for early Fritz Lang films of the 20’s and 30’s including METROPOLIS (1927) and M (1931), also F.W. Murnau’s SUNRISE (1927), before emigrating to Hollywood in 1931 and making a name for himself in America by directing THE BLACK CAT (1934), an atmospheric horror film adapted from an Edgar Allen Poe tale starring both Boris Karloff and Bela Lugosi.  But of all the films he directed, only DETOUR was chosen to the National Film Registry, the first B-movie to be chosen, as it carries the distinct imprint of the post war, German Expressionist style mixed with the bleak fatalism of an American film noir.  Supposedly shot in a week for less than $20,000, a road movie with no location shots, this lighting and production design is remarkably inventive in a morality tale of an unlovable loser stuck in a nightmarish, Kafkaesque world, featuring a down-on-his-luck loner, Al Roberts (Tom Neal), the victim of bad luck and trouble and an ill-fated future, paralyzed by the poisonous venom from the Queen Bee villainess, Vera (Ann Savage), a mysterious hitchhiker whose cold-blooded, in-your-face, blackmailing technique overwhelms him and keeps him stymied throughout the film, suffocating him with her sting, toying with his guilt and paranoiac delusions, unable to claw his way out of her web.  A mere 68 minutes, the film reflects an era of utility and purpose, where nothing extraneous is added to this taut psychological thriller, something unheard of today, as they would add plenty of character development.  Not so in this film, which in an uninterrupted shot shows the open road stretching out to the horizon through the opening credits, where the camera is distancing itself from the road left behind. 


Using an overly morose inner narration throughout, Al is a jazz pianist down in the dumps and seen hitching across the country from New York to Hollywood, broke and hungry, with little to show for himself, hoping to unite with his girlfriend Sue (Claudia Drake), a pick up singer last seen when both were literally immersed in a fog bank.  A brief flashback sequence shows an amusing quality that is interestingly used later in The Blue Dahlia (1946), where the sound of American jazz music is a sign for mental agitation (recall William Bendix screaming “Turn off that monkey music!”), as emotional and psychological scars have obviously left their mark as Al screams to shut it off when someone plays a song on the jukebox that recalls better times, Detour (1945) - Can't Believe That You're In Love With Me - YouTube  (1:50), suggesting a happier world and a better life that he remains exiled from in the present.  This device was also used in CASABLANCA (1942) when nightclub owner Rick forbids Sam the piano player from playing a certain song.  Among the more brilliant scenes are the nightclub sequences, which include Al playing solo piano, performing ultra-theatrical versions of Chopin and Brahms waltzes, odd choices in a jazz club which add a hyper realistic, but out of synch view of the world as seen through his eyes.  What’s also interesting is the frequent use of Ulmer playing an orchestral reprise of the song “I’m Always Chasing Rainbows,” which suggests Al has already cut himself off from reality and is chasing a pipe dream.  The mood quickly changes when Al is picked up by a bookie on his way to Los Angeles, Charles Haskell (Edmund MacDonald), a guy on a mission to reverse his own luck but dies mysteriously in the car, where Al in a panic assumes his identity, thinking no one would believe he died naturally and would suspect the worst, claiming his cash, his clothes, and his car, hoping to ditch the car once he gets to Los Angeles.  But incredibly he picks up another hitchhiker along the way, Vera, who immediately accuses him of murdering Haskell, as she was riding with him earlier and recognizes Haskell’s clothes and car.  Again in a spot, backed into a corner, Al succumbs to all of Vera’s demands, where she takes all the money and plots to sell the car, continually threatening to expose him to the police if he doesn’t do as she says. 


As a B-movie, the clarity of image is lacking, the soundtrack has a noticeable hiss throughout, and the razor-sharp dialogue at times resembles screwball comedy with the frenetic pace, where the dialogue is not always in synch with the actors and at times has such an amusing, overly hard-edged, noirish language to it that it feels as if Al and Vera are talking in code.  Their tough guy, stone-faced approach to one another, filtered through the extra layer of haze caused by excessive alcohol, creates a kind of dysfunctional paralysis, where neither one of them makes a bit of sense and instead exposes viciousness and raw desperation, where her overly aggressive stance keeps him cornered, even though any reasonable person would simply walk away at any number of opportunities, but he remains ensnared by the very nature of her deviousness.  The contrast between the two is markedly different, as is the contrast between the two women, where Al and Sue are both viewed as innocent and naïve next to the willfully crass amorality of Vera, nonetheless, the world closes in on them both with a dizzying claustrophobic hysteria.  Audiences must love hating Vera, as she’s so over the top, one of the more evil and diabolic femme fatales who fittingly gets what she deserves, which only ends up tightening the noose around his neck, casting him out into the world chasing shadows, where behind every dark corner is someone searching after him.  The entire film is saturated in layers of guilt and self-loathing, where Al is seen as such a weak, miserable wretch that no good can come to him, where he will forever wander the streets like a ghost stripped of his worldly existence, where a wrong turn somewhere distanced him from ever having a future, leaving him instead lost, eternally wandering the wasteland.  As fatalistic a film as you’re ever going to find, perhaps the biggest irony is what actually happened to actor Tom Neal, a former boxer, who was ostracized from the Hollywood community in the early 50’s for his hair trigger temper, alcoholism, and history of physical assault, eventually charged with the murder of his own wife.  After serving his sentence, he died of a heart attack less than a year following his release.  


Detour   Nick Schager

Tom Neal's Al has the sourest puss in all of noir, and his perpetual frown and whiny, unreliable narration give the low-budget Detour its evocative dourness. Shot on the cheap in six days, Edward G. Ulmer's Poverty Row tale of woe is an archetypal exercise in post-war pessimism, detailing the pathetic downfall of a two-bit piano player (Neal) doomed by his cowardice. With its overcooked dialogue, makeshift sets, jagged performances (including Anne Savage's crazy-eyed femme fatale), and endless rear-projection car scenes, this coincidence-laden suspense yarn has no business being as irresistibly moody as it is. Like great garage rock, however, Ulmer's landmark film ultimately derives its raw, jittery vitality from its very crudeness.

Detour Review. Movie Reviews - Film - Time Out London

The kind of film (made in six days, almost entirely in a Poverty Row studio, its extensive road scenes shot with back projection) that would be impossible to make today, even as a TV movie. Now it would require 100% locations (the 'art' of studio shooting having been discredited and thus lost), and the minimal narrative would never justify a go-ahead (pianist Neal is bumming from New York to rejoin his girl in California until tripped by hostile fate and the literally amazing femme fatale Savage). Neither pure thriller nor pure melodrama (though it has its true complement of doomed lovers, dead bodies, and a cruel sexual undertow), on an emotional level it most resembles the wonderful purple-pulp fiction of David Goodis. Passion joins with folly to produce termite art par excellence.

A Film Canon [Billy Stevenson]

The strongest B-noir of the 1940s, Detour incorporates all the restrictions and setbacks of its shooting schedule into an extraordinary anti-aesthetic of sordidness, or impoverishment, in which the bourgeois self-hatred of classical noir is replaced by two, desperate journeys from New York to Los Angeles, in search of more promising employment. This divests the central 'crime' - nightclub pianist Al Roberts' (Tom Neal) manslaughter of the driver giving him a ride - of any exoticism, or voyeuristic thrill, while ensuring that the ensuing complication - another hitchhiker, Vera's (Ann Savage), discovery of the crime, and subsequent blackmail of Roberts - is similarly devoid of any sexual tension, or agenda: "If this were fiction, I would fall in love with her...or else she would make some supreme class-A sacrifice for me, and die..." The result is a profound, nihilistic banality, which finds most explicit expression in the gradual relocation of the antagonism between Al and Vera from a criminal, to a merely domestic, register, but is perhaps most poetically figured in the use of back-projections for virtually every scene. These collapse New York, Los Angeles and, most strikingly, the miles of highway between them, into a single, blurry, gritty medium, as if to reinforce that, in the world that these protagonists (if they can even be called that) inhabit, all such distinctions are meaningless; or, rather, that the initial journey to Los Angeles, made by Al's lover (Sue Roberts), in search of Hollywood stardom, neglects the continuity between the studios and the gutter from which that journey 'begins'.

Jigsaw Lounge [Neil Young]

Even in the rickety, dodgy, scratched-to-hell print shown at Rotterdam – all flaring edges and dodgy sound – the late-night screening of Detour was easily one of the highlights of my fortnight at the festival. It may not quite be the 'greatest of all B-movies' hailed by certain critics, but must certainly feature on any shortlist. Laced with hilariously hardbitten 40s dialogue, the first half is pretty good: we see how handsome nightclub pianist Al Roberts (Tom Neal) encountered a run of bad luck while trying to journey west from New York to be with his girlfriend (Claudia Drake) in Los Angeles.

But Detour only really takes off with the sudden arrival on the scene of its most famous element, the well-named Ann Savage as screeching femme fatale hitchhiker Vera. First-time viewers primed for Savage's movie-stealing turn may be surprised at just how late in the day she appears – Al's girlfriend has so much screen time they'd be forgiven for reckoning that she is the prominently-billed Savage. They'd be dead wrong: Vera and the nicey-nicey girlfriend (whose name the viewer soon forgets) are chalk and cheese, or rather sour whiskey and warm milk.

Trampy  'bad girl' Vera exudes a kind of malevolent, misanthropic energy that's startling to encounter in a 60-year-old movie, barrelling the picture along to its rug-pulling conclusion which it wouldn't be fair to reveal here. God only knows what Martin Goldsmith's source novel is like, but in Ulmer's no-nonsense hands Detour is enthrallingly enjoyable nightmare of frustrated desires and inescapable self-defeat.

"Detour Movie Review"  A Life At The Movies, July 1, 2010

When I was watching the entire series of Blondie films a while back, I was surprised to see Anne Savage in Footlights Glamour, one of the later Blondie films. She was still a glamour girl with a contract at Columbia pictures at that time, and her role was far less substantial and gritty what she was allowed to play in Detour, and seeing her brief turn in the earlier comedy made me want to watch her in this quintessential film noir again.

The plot of Detour is quite simple. Al Roberts is a down-on-his-luck piano player is hitchhiking across the country to meet up with his old flame when he is picked up by a Haskell, a bookie in a fancy car. Al takes the his turn at the wheel, and when he stops to put the top up, he notices Haskell is dead. Fearing the police would pin a murder on him, he hides his body in the desert and takes his money and car and assumes his identity. He later picks up a female hitchhiker, “who looked like she is had fallen off of the dirtiest freight train.” She had previously ridden in the same car with Haskell, and sees through Al immediately and sets about blackmailing him to join her plan to get all of Haskell’s money. Finally, he is involved in another accidental death that makes him look even more guilty. While the story is simple, it has been suggested that it may be related by an unreliable narrator, as the only information comes from Al, who may be altering the events to cover up his own guilt. Near the end of the film, there is scene in which Al looks around the cheap hotel room which he has been held as a virtual prisoner, with the objects, or evidence, around him going in and out of focus, revealing that he is not entirely conscious of what he is doing. But aside from the plot, director Edgar G. Ulmer successfully (and cheaply!) creates an atmosphere of total seediness and despair, and that, along with Ann Savage’s remarkable performance, is really which made this film an unexpected classic.

Director Ulmer and Savage later said that the entire film was shot in six days, but this claim has been challenged, prompting Peter Bogdanovich to quip, “so what did he have, seven?” In the documentary Edgar G. Ulmer: The Man Off-screen, the director’s daughter Arianne Ulmer presents a shooting script with with a title page reading “June 14, 1945-June 29. Camera days 14.” In any case, the film was shot cheaply and quickly, and Ulmer used innovation and resourcefulness to get around these limitations. Or, as Ann Savage said decades later, “well, we didn’t waste any time.”

"Magic on a shoestring"  Geoffrey Macnab from the Guardian, August 4, 2004

Edgar G Ulmer was Hollywood's poverty row magician. As Peter Bogdanovich wrote: "Nobody has ever made good pictures faster or for less money". "What he could do with nothing remains an object lesson for those directors, myself included, who complain about tight budgets and schedules."

In his 40 years as a director, Ulmer made some of the most ingenious and disturbing B movies in Hollywood history. His best-known picture, Detour, was shot in less than a week for under $20,000 and yet boasts production design and lighting as inventive as anything found in the huge budget German silent era classics, on which he served his apprenticeship.

It's symptomatic of the neglect into which Ulmer has fallen in Britain that the only one of his films readily available on DVD is The Naked Venus (1958), a tiny budget tale about a French artist's model who joins an American nudist colony. It seems an unlikely assignment, but Arianne Cipes Ulmer, the director's daughter, explains: "My mother and father were both nudists. Part of the Germanic fresh air movement of their lifetime."

With its shots of naked Americans playing volleyball and creaky courtroom scenes in which the model makes a stirring plea on behalf of nudists everywhere, the film is a poor advertisement for its director's abilities: there are, for instance, few of his trademark lighting effects or elaborate tracking shots. But Naked Venus is an intriguing introduction to Ulmer's work.

Ulmer was born in 1904 in Moravia. His father, Siegfried Ulmer, served in the Austrian army during the first world war, and died when Edgar was 12. As an adolescent in war-ravaged Vienna, he experienced poverty and anti-semitism; but such was his precocious talent that he found a job as a stage designer for director Max Reinhardt. Before long he established himself in the German film industry of the 1920s, working as a production designer (a role he created) on The Golem, Metropolis and Sunrise.

The crowning glory of his first stint in Hollywood was The Black Cat (1934), a typical Ulmer mish-mash, combining gothic elements, incongruous romantic comedy and Bauhaus design. The film is genuinely scary, setting Bela Lugosi as a traumatised man returning home from the war against Boris Karloff as an architect with satanic leanings. Although The Black Cat was a notable box-office success, Ulmer was forced into exile when he fell in love with Shirley Castle. She was married to Max Alexander - Universal chief Carl Laemmle's nephew. Ulmer and Shirley eloped to New York during the depression, leaving their careers in tatters behind them. "He never reconciled with Laemmle. Nor did my mother with the entire Laemmle family," says Arianne.

Just when he was close to despair, Ulmer was hired to make a series of films for the booming Yiddish-language market. In the early 1940s, he was lured back to Hollywood to work for Producers' Releasing Corporation (PRC). Thus began his years on what was nicknamed "Poverty Row", making films in flea-pit studios on tiny budgets. Arianne says he didn't feel bitter about this: "Fame and money were not issues. He really only wanted to have the opportunity to work and express himself."

Perhaps Ulmer's masterpiece was Ruthless (1948), his "low-rent Citizen Kane" as it was dubbed. This is a quintessentially American tale about a kid from the wrong side of the tracks. Horace Woodruff Vendig (Zachary Scott) escapes his impoverished background, makes it rich, but ruins the lives of everybody with whom he comes into contact in the process. Told in flashback, it's a dark and depressing tale about the hollowness of success.

Though his background was as a designer, Ulmer worked brilliantly with actors, eliciting a pathetic but deeply moving performance from Sydney Greenstreet (the rotund, well-spoken villain from Casablanca and The Maltese Falcon) as the financier whom Vendig cuckolds, humiliates and bankrupts. In one scene, as Greenstreet realises that his wife is about to leave him, we see him staring in despair at his own reflection. In another, though broken and overweight, he makes a feeble attempt to throttle his tormentor.

For many, though, the quintessential Ulmer film remains Detour. He described it as a morality fable about "an absolute loser". Al Roberts (Tom Neal) is a New York pianist who hitchhikes across country for a reunion with his girlfriend. En route, Al takes a ride with Haskell, a bookie who dies unexpectedly. Al steals the car and the man's identity, but then he picks up Vera (Ann Savage), a young delinquent who knew Haskell. Convinced that Al killed him, she begins to blackmail him.

The film has the warped, nightmarish feel of a Kafka story. In fact it was adapted from a "very bad book" by Martin Goldsmith. Ulmer transformed the material, cutting large chunks of the original narrative. His casting was astute. Neal and Savage bring just the right measure of desperation, viciousness and vulnerability to their roles. (In a gruesome case of life imitating art, Neal was later charged with the murder of his wife.)

Detour alone would be enough to sustain Ulmer's reputation. By his own calculation, though, he made 127 other features. This month's season at the National Film Theatre includes only a fragment of his lifetime's work. His films reflected his protean imagination. "My father was a deeply sensitive European mind wounded by war," says Arianne. "He could laugh until the tears rolled down his cheeks and be so jovial or rage like bull or withdraw into his shell. Today we would have probably labelled him as manic-depressive. He was a workaholic but he had enormous capacity for joy, anger, humour and sensuality."

Detour • Senses of Cinema  Dana Polan, July 19, 2002            


Detour - Film (Movie) Plot and Review - Publications  Glenn Lovell from Film Reference


Parallax View [David Coursen]  Originally published in Movietone News, February 1976


Images Movie Journal  Gary Morris, January 2001, also seen here:  Bright Lights Film Journal :: Edgar G. Ulmer's Detour on DVD


BFI | Sight & Sound | Mr Pink, Mr Indie, Mr Shhh  Philip Kemp from Sight and Sound, August 2001


Film Noir of the Week  Dave


Film Court: Detour - Culture Court  Lawrence Russell


Detour (1945) -  Jeff Stafford - Edgar G. Ulmer - 1945 - Detour Movies Review  John Beachem


Only The Cinema [Ed Howard] [Fernando F. Croce]


DVD Savant review  Glenn Erickson


Goatdog's Movies [Michael W. Phillips Jr.]


Ferdy on Films [Marilyn Ferdinand]


John Ulmer  also seen here:  Movie Vault [John Ulmer]


The Films of Edgar G. Ulmer [Michael E. Grost]


Dennis Schwartz  also seen here:  Ozus' World Movie Reviews



Chicago Sun-Times [Roger Ebert] [Gary W. Tooze]

Detour (1945 film) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Detour (1945) Film Noir Thriller [HD] National Film ...  entire film may be seen here

Unkrich, Lee

TOY STORY 3                                                         B-                    81

USA  (103 mi)  2010


This is easily my least favorite of the three, largely due to the rehashing of already familiar themes and the near complete absence of little kids.  Instead, this film has a feeling of alienation from the outset, toys in exile, no longer loved or needed, themes that were beautifully explored in TOY STORY 2 (1999) over a decade ago, still the best chapter in my view, as the depth of the emotional connection is so unbelievably compelling.  As Andy is now old enough to go to college, he has to clean out his room, which includes deciding what to do with his old toys that he hasn’t touched in years.  It’s the same old gang of toys, minus a few who haven’t survived, who are now a nervous wreck thinking this is the end of the line, as they may end up in the trash.  While they were destined to go into the attic, mom mistakenly throws them out for the garbage truck, miraculously rescued by Woody at the last moment, and then like always, no one believes him when he tries to tell them they were destined for the attic, not the garbage.  This is little consolation, as they all heard Andy call them “old junk,” so they (again mistakenly) end up in a box of toys meant for the local day care center, which seems like a paradise, as kids will play with them all day long and they’re initially welcomed by all the other toys, led by a strawberry smelling red bear named Lotso, where Barbi swoons over her first look at Ken who lives in a giant playhouse, and everyone, except Woody, has high expectations.  Woody is still trying to bring them all back home, but he has no takers, so he escapes on his own, where he’s accidentally picked up by an effectionate little girl named Bonnie who brings him home and is thrilled at pulling his string and hearing those corny old cowboy sayings, where Woody soon meets an entirely new set of toys who greet him warmly.  Meanwhile the old gang is treated to the rude awakening of pre-schoolers who bash them around and smash them to bits, then leave them around in pieces for someone else to clean up afterwards.  By the time day is done, they are in for a few more surprises, like being locked in where they can’t escape, taking a page out of the CHICKEN RUN (2000) scenario, while the strawberry bear, in a reprise of the evil character Stinky Pete the Prospector, turns into their worst nightmare, turning the facilities into a locked down prison camp at night run by a few of the privileged toys. 


Much of the humor completely disappears during the harrowing prison segment, which even includes a torture sequence with Buzz where they reprogram him back to his original status when he was following orders to protect the universe.  They erase his memory and turn him into the ideal prison guard, where each of the toys are actually locked into little iron cages.  All hope appears lost until Woody reappears on the scene to help them escape.  In what can only be called a moment of comical genius, the gang can’t figure out how to change Buzz back to the way he was, so instead they find him a stellar new personality that only speaks Spanish (subtitled), dances the tango with an incredibly captivated Jessie, and whispers sweet nothings in her ear, constantly rescuing her from every manner of mayhem, where Buzz has become a sensuous, smooth-talking Latin lover, though still not recognizing his old gang.  As they make their great escape, there are indescribable adult style difficulties to overcome, including several destruction sequences, where the threat of total annihilation is paramount.  And that’s ultimately the undoing of this chapter, as the mood has shifted so completely from originality and subversive adolescent humor to Michael Bay or James Cameron style entertainment reaching a point where a vicious new horror prevails, so completely the thoughts of an adult world, as the gang is continuously tortured and terrorized for a good portion of the film, capturing an unnerving bad guy mood for children while still relying upon ingenious solutions to save their lives.  Still, the change in Buzz’s personality is a spectacular addition, easily the best thing in the film and probably the only original new idea, including a Gipsy Kings Spanish rendition over the end credits of “You’ve Got a Friend in Me” para Buzz Español.   Without it, the film is stuck in a dire mode and lacked the humor it needed, never really developing any emotional connection until the final scene when it finally reverts back to childhood.


The Onion A.V. Club review [A]  Tasha Robinson

Deep into Toy Story 3, there’s a moment where some of the toy protagonists realize that in spite of all their cleverness and determination, there’s no way out of the fatal trap into which they’ve fallen. In any other children’s film, this would be a time for comedic panic, long-withheld personal confessions, or dramatic statements that would immediately turn out to be ironic. In any other children’s film, the moment would quickly peak and pass. But Toy Story 3 director Lee Unkrich (Finding Nemo, Monsters Inc.) holds for long, excruciating moments on the silent characters, as they pass from disbelief into sorrowful resolve, then take each others’ hands and wait. And wait. And wait.

It’s a shockingly grim sequence, but this is what Pixar films do best: find a place of deep emotion and explore it without blunting it, overexplaining it, or passing it off with a laugh. Toy Story 3 never gets darker than this moment, but time and again, it similarly finds real, resonant emotion in the antics of a bunch of children’s toys having adventures when nobody’s looking.

That emotion starts with the toys’ pathetic desperation as their owner, now 17 and headed to college, fails to play with them, no matter what ruse they try. While loyalist cowboy Woody (Tom Hanks) insists they should stand by the boy even if he wants them all in a trash bag in the attic, his blinkered devotion is more creepy than sweet. But the film never plays this for humor, either; his dedication is as real and important to him as his friends’ burning desire to move on, find new kids, and get played with again. Which sets up a lot of conflict and frantic hijinks involving a day-care center, separations and reunions, and action that playfully evokes films from The Great Escape to Cool Hand Luke

TS3 doesn’t entirely dodge some of the current kid-movie standards; Unkrich brings in an astonishing crowd of celebrities to voice even the most minor characters, and lets a pop song express the comedy of one moment. But the film never lets banter, visual gags, or the usual manic kid-flick running about interfere with its more delicately handled thoughts on loyalty, longing, broken relationships, and generational continuity. It honestly earns its emotion, moment by painstakingly executed moment.

Movie Martyr (Jeremy Heilman) review [2.5/4]

Midway through Toy Story 3, Hayao Miyazaki’s most beloved creation, Totoro, makes a cameo appearance. The nod seems to be borne out of the Pixar creators’ stated respect for Miyazaki’s work, but nonetheless comes across as mild hubris, given that the obligatory, imagination-bereft Toy Story 3 pales in comparison to any of the animated wonders that Miyazaki’s Studio Ghibli has produced. Technically well-crafted (with the significant exception of 3D effects that seem like an obvious afterthought), the film blandly recycles both the jokes and themes of its predecessor, this time with the separation anxiety of cowgirl Jessie contaminating the whole toy box as their owner, Andy, begins preparations to leave for college.

This theme of rejection has arguably been central to the Toy Story series since Buzz displaced Woody in the first entry, making the sequels’ focus on the same material feel redundant. More troubling than that continued lack of thematic imagination, however, are the characters and plot elements in this third entry that seem to have been cribbed from the previous franchise entries. Once again, space hero Buzz Lightyear reverts to factory settings and turns on his fellow toys. Lotso, a malicious Teddy bear, comes off as a Stinky Pete retread. The basic plot, which recycles numerous prison escape films, is a tired inversion of Toy Story 2’s rescue operation. That the overall level of invention would be reduced is to be expected in a second sequel, one could argue, but that makes this film feel no less stale.

Toy Story 3 strives to invoke the audience’s sense of nostalgia, both for the characters in the film and for the retail products that they signify. Watching the movie, however, the nostalgia that I felt most strongly was for animated features produced in the pre-Shrek era. Toy Story 3 frequently indulges in the cheap brand of crass humor that has defined that series, with fart jokes, ethnic jokes, and gay jokes throughout its run time. All of this seems well beneath the level of sophistication that people insist Pixar films possess, and suggests something of a shark jump for the studio.

Beyond such quibbles, the threadbare plot of Toy Story 3 raises another cause for complaint. While the series’ willingness to grapple with the disposability of toys is commendable, the sappy ending, in which Andy, on the verge of manhood, regresses considerably, renders much of the complexity of what has come before moot. Since the emotional core of the film is left over from its predecessors, the focus of the movie falls on its action set pieces, all of which are pitched at the same level and grow redundant.  This is unfortunate, because Toy Story 3 has little to offer adult viewers beyond those endless chases, coy referentiality, and its sole thematic obsession. For children, and children at heart, it might be enough. At best, Toy Story 3 stands as a refinement of Toy Story 2, a movie which was an unnecessary sequel to begin with.

New York Magazine (David Edelstein) review

Back in the sixties and seventies, before films became “franchises” and “tent poles,” before Jaws and Star Wars and corporate-studio ownership changed everything, the “summer blockbuster” wasn’t a genre unto itself, a megabudget cartoon tooled to help us escape from our lives. It hadn’t been commoditized yet. And escapism took different forms. I spent my childhood in an upper-middle-class suburb, one of those doomed artificial constructs in which the outside world is kept vigorously at bay. Isolated from the counterculture, the war, the racial upheavals of the big cities, I went to blockbusters like In the Heat of the Night, Easy Rider, and Woody Allen’s Bananas to escape to reality. There was lots of crap, but of a different order than this season’s The A-Team and Killers and Shrek XXV and Iron Man 2—which cost hundreds of millions and are not so much made as microengineered.

I’ve never blamed Jaws for what happened: It’s the best summer movie ever made. People forget how real it seemed. It was shot in a beach resort (Martha’s Vineyard) in the days when Steven Spielberg was forced to use the world as he found it instead of building one from scratch. I loved the tension between the texture of life and his smooth, beautifully modulated, movie-ish technique. I saw it opening night in a sold-out, electrified house. The movie has what’s still my favorite scare: Roy Scheider, shot from above (with plenty of water behind him), calling out, “Why don’t you guys come down here and shovel some of this shit?” and just when we’re starting to laugh (“He said ‘shit’!”) the shark comes out of the blue, no preamble, no music, just teeth and the sound of a crowd shrieking as one.

No, the beginning of the end was Star Wars, synthetic then as now, clever but never exhilarating, infinitely merchandisable. With any luck, this summer’s most merchandisable blockbuster, Toy Story 3, will be the last of the Toy Story movies. Yes, there will be pressure on Pixar to squeeze out sequels. But the chances of topping this one are infinitesimal. It’s another paradoxical Pixar beauty: the high-tech ode to the old-fashioned, the vintage, the stuff of childhood fantasy play when kids and not computer programmers supplied the imagination.

I don’t think of the Toy Story pictures as “escapism,” even though they’re rooted in a child’s dream of what happens when the lights go out and the toys come to life. At heart they’re about aging, impermanence, loss, and death. Pixar likely borrowed the premise from Thomas M. Disch’s The Brave Little Toaster: Objects once prized lose their newness and become disposable. But they have spiritual properties, and to discard them carelessly is to dishonor the past that shaped us. It’s almost Buddhist in how it invests all matter with a life force worthy of reverence.

Toy Story 3 has another dimension, probably the upshot of creators John Lasseter, Andrew Stanton, and director Lee Unkrich’s getting older and having families. The toys—especially the cowboy Woody (with the voice of Tom Hanks)—see the boy who owns them, Andy, through the eyes of parents with kids who are ready to move on. After a wild prologue with Woody and Tim Allen’s Buzz Lightyear and Joan Cusack’s cowgirl Jessie saving a trainload of orphans from the evil pig mastermind—which comes to a halt when young Andy is called to dinner—we jump a decade ahead. Andy no longer plays with toys; he’s going off to college. His room is being cleared for his younger sister with her MP3 player and computer. Should the toys be stuck in the attic? Donated to Sunnyside, a children’s day-care center? Or left on the curb for the garbage truck? The gang, which includes the sister’s cast-off Barbie (voiced by Jodi Benson), is scared by the prospect of all those possibilities.

After mix-ups and chases, they end up at Sunnyside, where the toy who calls the shots is the formidable huggy bear, Lotso, with the great southern stentorian voice of Ned Beatty. Lotso is a character with stature—a toy shattered by abandonment who has purged himself of sentiment. And soon our gang discovers he runs Sunnyside as a kind of prison. The big bald baby doll functions as a spooky enforcer and looks like the Swedish wrestler Tor Johnson in Ed Wood movies. A cymbal-clashing monkey is the prison guard of nightmares. Horror of horrors, Buzz is reprogrammed to be his old pompous self to help Lotso keep everyone in cages. Suddenly, thrillingly, Toy Story 3 becomes a prison-break movie.

As usual with Pixar, the little things win your heart, like Woody escaping out the bathroom window but pausing to put down a sheet of toilet paper before stepping on the seat. At Sunnyside, Barbie meets Ken (Michael Keaton), and all our culture’s Ken-is-gay jokes get a new spin: He’s a metrosexual elated at finding someone to whom he can show off his disco wardrobe. The gags are all of a piece, right up to the forlorn yet enchanting finale.

Kids will love Toy Story 3 for its cliff-hangers and slapstick spills. But for grown-ups, the film will touch something deeper: the heartfelt wish that childhood memories will never fade. This lovely, wistful movie weaves together our joyful fantasies of the past, the ones that helped form us, and our darker fears of being forgotten—and offers hope that we can somehow reconcile those poles of existence for ourselves. The slight autumnal chill makes the warmth of summer all the sweeter.

Toy Story 3 and the Long Recession  zunguzungu, July 2, 2010


The Wall Street Journal (Joe Morgenstern) review


Twitch [Jim Tudor] [Andrew O'Hehir]


Slant Magazine [Ed Gonzalez]


Window to the Movies (Jeffrey Chen) capsule review [10/10] (Devin Faraci) review


Cinefantastique [Steve Biodrowski]


Hating the Player, Losing the Game: The Armond White Meta-Review  Paul Brunick from The House Next Door, July 6, 2009


TIME Magazine (Richard Corliss) review


Christian Science Monitor (Peter Rainer) review [A]


Eye for Film (Scott Macdonald) review [5/5]


Cinema Autopsy (Thomas Caldwell) review [4.5/5]


Film Freak Central review  Walter Chaw


The Village Voice [Eric Hynes]


A Nutshell Review [Stefan S]


Mark Reviews Movies (Mark Dujsik) review [4/4]


ReelViews (James Berardinelli) review [3.5/4]


Cinema Blend review  Josh Tyler


Monsters and Critics [Anne Brodie]


Cinematical (Jeffrey M. Anderson) review  also seen here:  Combustible Celluloid (Jeffrey M. Anderson) review [3.5/4]


The House Next Door [Elise Nakhnikian]


Q Network Film Desk (James Kendrick) review [4/4]


DVD Talk (Jamie S. Rich) review [4/5] [3-D Version] 


DVD Talk (Tyler Foster) review [5/5] [3-D Version]


SF, Horror and Fantasy Film Review review [3.5/5]  Richard Scheib

User reviews  from imdb Author: diac228 ( from Orlando, Florida

User reviews  from imdb (Page 2) Author: MisterWhiplash from United States (Erik Childress) review [5/5] (Jay Seaver) review [5/5] (Mel Valentin) review [5/5] (David Cornelius) review [5/5] (Peter Sobczynski) review [5/5]


Cinema Viewfinder (Tony Dayoub) review


Black Sheep Reviews [Joseph Belanger]


The Land of Eric (Eric D. Snider) review [A]  also seen here: [Eric D. Snider]


Cinema Crazed (Felix Vasquez Jr.) review (Brian Orndorf) review [4/5]  also seen here:  DVD Talk [Brian Orndorf]  and here:  Briandom [Brian Orndorf]


The Parallax Review [Matt Wedge]


Digital Spy [Simon Reynolds] (LaRae Meadows) review [8/10]


One Guy's Opinion (Frank Swietek) review [B+]


RopeofSilicon (Brad Brevet) review [A+] (Kiko Martinez) review [A-]


Movie Cynics [The Vocabulariast]


The Flick Filosopher (MaryAnn Johanson) review


Film Monthly (Sawyer J. Lahr) review


Lessons of Darkness [Nick Schager]


Entertainment Weekly review [A]  Owen Gleiberman


Variety (Peter Debruge) review


Time Out New York [Joshua Rothkopf]


Time Out London (Ben Walters) review [4/5]


The Independent (Anthony Quinn) review [5/5]


Toy Story 3: fitting finale or tired rehash?  Ben Child from The Guardian, July 20, 2010


Toy Story 3: a weepie to remember  Tom Shone from The Daily Telegraph, June 22, 2010


Why Toy Story 3 makes men weep  Tom Teodorczuk from The Daily Telegraph, June 29, 2010


The Daily Telegraph review [4/5]  Sukhdev Sandhu, July 15, 2010


The Boston Phoenix (Peter Keough) review


City Pages, Minneapolis/St. Paul (Eric Hynes) review


Austin Chronicle review [4/5]  Kimberley Jones


San Francisco Chronicle (Mick LaSalle) review [4/4]


Los Angeles Times (Kenneth Turan) review


Chicago Tribune [Michael Phillips]


Chicago Sun-Times (Roger Ebert) review [3/4]


The New York Times (A.O. Scott) review


Urushadze, Zaza


TANGERINES (Mandariinid)                                            B+                   92

Estonia  Georgia  (87 mi)  2013  ‘Scope


I want to be with you again
Even when I fight, I am with you in my dreams
I´ll be back, I´ll sail back on a paper ship
I´ll come back to you from over the seas
Don´t believe it if they say I won´t come back
I will come back to you


Qavagadi Navi (A Paper Boat), by Georgian poet Irakli Charkviani, a song that was hugely popular among fighters during the war in 1992


Films have a way of resurrecting periods of history that time forgot, though those involved will never forget.  After the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, the Caucasus region was the site of endless conflicts, as the suddenly independent nation of Georgia broke out into a bloody civil war, where those on the far western part of the country known as Abkhazia, a conglomeration of Armenian, Greek and Turkish descent bordering on Russia and the Black Sea, were fighting for their own Christian and Islamic independence from Orthodox Christian Georgia in the 1992–1993 War in Abkhazia.  Russia sided with the Abkhazian separatists, sending in mercenaries from Chechnya to fight against the Georgians, while caught in the middle was a small community of Estonians, mostly farmers, who had lived there peacefully for more than 100 years, though they were originally part of a colonialist Russian resettlement program in the mid-19th century.  When war broke out, most Estonians returned home to be repatriated in their own suddenly independent nation in the Baltics, which is a good distance away (about 1500 miles, across the bay from Finland, see here on a map:  Countries ).  But not everyone went.   While the film might recall Danis Tanović’s NO MAN’S LAND, an insightful look at the absurdity of the 1993 Serbian-Bosnian conflict, this approaches the madness of war from a far more humane view, becoming what is arguably the most polite anti-war film on record, one that accentuates a more civilized and genteel approach to resolving conflicts.  The first Estonian film to be nominated for an Academy Award, it was nominated in the Best Foreign Film category, and is also the first joint Georgia-Estonia film production.  Set somewhere in rural Abkhazian territory, two elderly Estonian farmers work feverishly to harvest their tangerine crop before the war draws near.  Ivo (Lembit Ulfsak, recently awarded male performer of the century in Estonia) is busy making wooden crates while Margus (Elmo Nüganen) is up on a ladder working in the orchard.  Realizing it’s only a matter of days to safely sell their crop in town before most everyone flees the region, they take a moment to marvel at the beauty of the tangerines. 


Their meditative moment, however, is interrupted by the arrival of a military jeep, where Ahmed (Giorgi Nakashidze), a Chechen mercenary fighting with the Abkhazians, hails Ivo and demands food for himself and a fellow soldier.  Surprised anyone’s remained on their farms in the middle of a war zone, Ahmed affectionately calls him “Grandpa,” showing respect for his generosity and his bravery before heading back to the front.  After another brief pause, thunderous gunfire erupts in front of the house, where a shootout leaves bloody casualties, including a severely wounded Ahmed, who can’t walk, while his friend and all of the Georgian fighters are dead.  “You shouldn’t yell,” Ivo warns the soldier, “Otherwise you might die.”  With the help of his neighbor, Ivo brings the wounded man into his home and dresses his injuries, while disposing of the jeep, driving it over a hill and letting it tumble down into a protective ravine.  “I thought it would explode,” Magnus observes with a touch of wry humor. “They explode in the cinema.” To which Ivo replies, “Cinema is a big fraud.”  While burying the dead, Ivo realizes one of the Georgians is still alive, though he remains unconscious, a soldier named Niko (Mikhail Meshki), who is brought into a separate bedroom with his wounds treated as well.  Slowly he feeds them and nurses them both back to health, each vowing to kill the other when they gain enough strength.  Ivo, however, lays down the law that no one will be killed in his home, demanding each man swear an oath to that effect.  Begrudgingly, both agree, but that doesn’t stop all the verbal taunts and hate threats that seem to accompany every meal.  The infusion of hatred is not something that exists in a vacuum, but is part of the ethnic animosity that has contaminated the region seemingly forever, where both sides eye the other with outright suspicion and contempt.  After a while, Ivo exclaims, “What is it with you guys, what gives you the right to kill?”  Suggesting both have family members back home, he literally scolds them for disrespecting their memory and acting so childish.           


Filmed in Guria, Georgia, part of the appeal is the haunting beauty of the rural region, beautifully shot by Rein Kotov, mostly with a static camera, who seems to admire those special moments when night turns to day and the sun tries to push through the hovering fog, providing painterly outdoor images, while most of the action is confined indoors, giving the film a theatrical feel, where the lengthy recovery period for each soldier adds to the timelessness of their hostility, which after awhile becomes ridiculous, especially since they’re being treated with the utmost respect by Ivo, whose extraordinary generosity and kindness is above and beyond anything either one of them deserve.  This is a completely different portrayal of honor than that expressed in American Sniper (2014), an American movie that has made a half a billion dollars, which glorifies a soldier participating in the bloodbath of wartime Iraq, and then bestows him with medals for having killed so many of the enemy, not one of which leaves him with any regrets, or any sense of personal satisfaction.  If anything, the film represents a hollow sense of heroism, one that glorifies war as nationalistic patriotism, and then condemns anyone who might criticize or suggest otherwise as anti-American.  This sense of self-righteousness and moral high ground is not reserved for Americans, but motivates any number of suicide bombers and religious zealots who all too eagerly sacrifice their lives for what they believe is a noble cause.  This kind of thinking, however, is not only shortsighted, but is largely fueled by hatred and religious animosity, where bigotry seems to guide the actions in war-ravaged regions.  Similarly, Ahmed vows to take revenge on Niko for the death of his comrade, “It is a holy thing for us.  You will never understand.”  Showing Biblical wisdom, Ivo inquires, “To kill a person who is sleeping, even if he is unconscious?  This is holy for you as well?  I didn’t know.”  As it turns out, both recovering soldiers have a fierce devotion to their ideals of honor, each respecting the fair-mindedness of Ivo and an appreciation for having been kept alive, where honoring their pledge to him on a daily basis seems to drain them of their mutual hatred.  Nonetheless, the abruptness of the finale comes as something of a surprise in this strange parable about heroes and villains, where it’s hard to tell one from the other sometimes, leaving one to ponder whether we should be so quick to condemn and annihilate one another, especially those we know so little about.  The Georgian music provided by Niaz Diasamidze, Niaz Diasamidze - Mandarinebi (HQ)  (14:25), provides a kind of mournful, almost Béla Tarr solemnity that only heightens what transpires onscreen, while the extraordinary final sequence that includes Irakli Charkviani’s Qavagadi Navi (A Paper Boat), Mandarinebi - Ending Soundtrack YouTube (4:02), is used to stunning effect, like a requiem for the dead, honoring and paying tribute to those who were never able to return to their homeland, including Charkviani himself, who died prematurely, reportedly of heart problems in 2006, posthumously awarded Georgia’s most prestigious Rustaveli Prize in 2013 for “his significant contribution to the development of contemporary Georgian culture.”  


Tangerines | Chicago Reader | Movie Times & Reviews  JR Jones

An Estonian box maker, left behind in the Caucasus Mountains after most of his countrymen have fled the Georgian civil war, gets pulled into the conflict when he shelters a Georgian soldier and an Abkhazian rebel who are both badly wounded in a nearby skirmish. Stuck under the same roof, these two enemies hiss at each other as they convalesce, each hoping to recover first so he can kill the other man, while their taciturn host shames them both with his own courage and humanity. Writer-director Zaza Urushadze turns this fragile premise into a superior chamber drama (2013), the mutual antipathy between the two fighters gradually cooling even as the war outside their door constantly threatens to inflame it. I've seen this kind of story play out before, but never in someone's living room. In Russian, Georgian, and Estonian with subtitles.

TANGERINES  (2014,  d. Zaza Urushadze)  *** 1/2  Ken Rudolph Site

The Caucasus in 1992 was the site of one of an endless series of conflicts...this time between Orthodox Christian Georgia and the Russian supported Islamic Republic of Abkhazia. Caught in the middle was a settlement of ethnic Estonians, mostly farmers and villagers on the Black Sea coast, who settled in the area over a hundred years before. At the start of the war, most of the Estonians fled back to their now independent country. However, a tangerine farmer and an elder stayed with the farm to bring in the crop. The war obtrudes on that task when opposing sides have a skirmish outside their doors, and they take in two badly wounded mortal enemies. That is the set-up for a dramatic chamber piece which speaks volumes about human nature in the process of making war. The acting and direction are first rate. This is the kind of anti-war story which packs an emotional wallop.

Because it's such a beautiful crop — Wader  Saulius Kovalskas, March 19, 2014                                                                                            

To talk, let alone write, about films like Tangerines is difficult. The trouble comes from inability to pinpoint exactly what was so amazing, because all elements of the film are simple by themselves and the quality seems to stem from something in-between, rather than the frames themselves. This is one of those films, which you describe to your friends as a “must see” and abstain from giving arguments to explain why.

For me, seeing a poster of Tangerines outside of a local Tallinn shopping centre Solaris was enough to know that not only I want to see this film, but that it will also be an unforgettable experience. For others – hearing the main theme might be enough. And for those, who are still not convinced or want to read more, the following paragraphs are here exactly for that.

The film opens up with a beautifully shot scene of a carpenter Ivo (starred by a famous Estonian actor Lembit Ulfsak, who has been continually working in both theatre and film industry for over 40 years) crafting crates for tangerines in his simple workshop. Just like Ivo, the Georgian director and scriptwriter Zaza Urushadze isn’t pretentious either. He knows his craft well and instead of attempting to make something ground-breaking, he directs in an honest way, focusing on simple things.

Written in only two weeks and filmed in a bit more than one month, Tangerines is exactly that: unsophisticated, yet effective techniques completely dedicated to the service of the story. Almost nothing is taken too far in this film and yet nothing is lacking.

It’s 1992 and Georgian – Abkhazian conflict has just broken out. Small Estonian villages in Abkhazia, where Estonians lived for more than a century, were abandoned as the exiled citizens took the offer to repatriate. The stupidity and animosities of the warfare are portrayed by focusing on an individual tragedy. The film introduces us to two Estonians who stayed behind and are now trying to continue their unpretentious lives in the midst of an armed conflict: the carpenter Ivo and an owner of a tangerine orchard – Margus, who is starred by another famous Estonian, a theatre director Elmo Nüganen. Both of these characters are working hard to harvest the tangerines in time. “Not because of the money”, as Margus puts it, “but because it’s such a beautiful crop”.

Life is just as beautiful and just as cheap as tangerines in the times of war. Ivo and Margus are trying to save not only the crop, but also the value of life, driven by the belief that people should remain humane to others, in spite of all the differences. This ideology is brought to a practical test as the deadly shootout ensues right next to the orchard. The Estonians manage to save two fighters from different sides of the conflict – Ahmed (Giorgi Nakashidze) and Nika (Misha Meskhi). Both of them are gravely wounded and both of them are bent on killing each other.

As their health improves under the vigilant care of Ivo, so does their attitude towards each other. Hatred is slowly replaced by attempts of understanding one another, slowly leading both characters and viewers to recognise the stupidity of war. The development is acted well and is interesting to watch, but regrettably, more is revealed by characters talking about themselves, than by their actions. The acting department also suffers from a feeling that character consistency is sometimes sacrificed in order to generate a laugh from the audience.

However, this isn’t a major shortcoming, as the director seems to know well how very thin the line between laughter and cry is. He utilizes this knowledge well, making dramatic situations happen moments after funny ones, thus intensifying the effect and constantly keeping grip on the audience and its feelings. This impact is supported by an amazing soundtrack. While it consists of only three songs and the main theme is repeated often, it doesn’t feel repetitive at all – the notes of it will affect viewers just as strongly by the end as it did when they first heard it.

The cinematographer of Tangerines is Rein Kotov (best known from 2012’s light Estonian comedy Mushrooming) and visually, the film truly is pleasing – it brings pleasure to see how beautiful light falls on beautiful faces full of life. It seems that the director knew exactly what and how he wanted it to be filmed, as the constant slow movement of camera has been used in his previous films and here as well. While the film has a small cast and was shot in just one location, it doesn’t feel claustrophobic at all. Director shows us glimpses of an outside world by introducing new characters, who quickly disappear again after their contribution to the story development.

It is always a unique experience to watch Georgian films. Not only haven’t their films yet been castrated from their national identity, but it is something that they take pride in and emphasize often in the movies they make. You can feel that Georgian films are really from Georgia and this experience can’t be transmitted from any other country.

Tangerines takes one step further – being the first co-production of Georgia and Estonia, it manages to capture both Georgian and Estonian spirit and portray it in an appealing and touching way not only to the audiences of these two countries, but to the viewers from all around the world.

Featuring a song that was popular amongst fighters back in the war in 1992, Irakli Charkviani’s Qavagadi Navi (A Paper Boat) – a promise to return no matter what, this film is guaranteed to make a lot of returns to one’s mind long after leaving the cinema. Not because of sophisticated techniques and stunning effects, as these things tend to fade, but because it transmits the importance of such human virtues as dignity, respect and willpower from somewhere in-between the captivating images. Because it tells so much by saying so little.

Deep Focus: Tangerines | Film Comment  Michael Sragow, April 15, 2015

Most Western moviegoers think that Abkhazia was where the wizards kept their prison in the Harry Potter saga, but Tangerines, a potent, intimate war movie about this contested pocket of the former Soviet Union, has the emotional force and intelligence to break through apathy and ignorance.

A co-production of Georgia and Estonia (and the first Estonian film to be nominated for an Academy Award), it unfolds during unpredictable pitched battles between Georgian soldiers and Abkhaz separatist forces in 1992. The movie’s central figure, Ivo (Lembit Ulfsak), is a sexagenarian carpenter in a rural area whose residents, fearing random atrocities as well as “ethnic cleansing,” have returned to Estonia, their ancestral home. Ivo and his neighbor, Margus (Elmo Nüganen), a tangerine farmer, and Juhan (Raivo Trass), a doctor, are the only other Estonian holdouts (and Juhan leaves with his wife a third of the way through). Margus plans to exit once he harvests and sells his crop. Ivo helps him by building crates and picking fruit, but he aims to stay in Abkhazia, even after a firefight breaks out between Georgians and Chechen mercenaries employed by Abkhazia, right in front of Margus’s orchards. Ivo nurses the wounded survivors: one burly, bullet-headed Chechen, Ahmed (Giorgi Nakhashidze), who must recover from a body shot, and one shambling, baleful-eyed Georgian, Niko (Mikheil Meskhi), who almost dies from a shell fragment in his head.

Georgian writer-director Zaza Urushadze’s triumph is to extract a tough-minded, lucid, even gravely beautiful drama from this panorama of Eurasian chaos. His choice to put an Estonian at the center is inspired. It fuels a plague-on-all-your houses approach to a dispute that generated barbarities in every quarter. As Andrew Mueller, one of the few Western reporters to visit Abkhazia, writes in his book, I Wouldn’t Start From Here: The 21st Century and Where It All Went Wrong, “Abkhazia’s 1992-93 war with Georgia was as hideous as it was obscure . . . Human Rights Watch had declared both sides responsible for ‘gross violations of international humanitarian law.’” Up to 10,000 Abkhazians perished at a time when their population numbered perhaps 250,000. Roughly 300,000 ethnic Georgians fled the territory. So did other ethnic groups, like the Estonians.

The filmmaker’s decision to pit a Chechen mercenary instead of an Abkhazian against a Georgian soldier is both historically accurate and evocative. “Abkhazia’s eventual victory was achieved with the assistance of some dubious customers,” Mueller notes. “The Russian military joined in, as did a poetically named outfit called the Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, an amalgamation of Islamist hillbillies from the region’s more ornery corners, notably Chechnya.” This jumble of racial, political, and religious attachments keeps Urushadze’s characters on their toes and his audiences guessing. When Margus says near the beginning that a major has offered troops to load his tangerines in carts, you can’t guess from which army.

With this volatile background, it would have been twisted for Tangerines to become a drippy fantasy about the brotherhood of man or a simplistic pacifist parable. Instead, it’s flavorful, sinewy, and replete with real-life contradictions, right up to the bitter and semisweet end. Urushadze manages to dramatize the central source of armed conflict in our time—the battle between rival nationalist forces over shared terrain—around the kitchen table of a man who disdains petty tribal allegiances. All the action occurs organically. It’s embedded in Ivo’s quiet determination to hold onto his home and moral sanity, and his refusal to let military forces breach his integrity, though they threaten to turn his and Margus’s tracts into a no-man’s-land.

No mere mouthpiece for the filmmaker, Ivo is a majestic character, rooted, sardonic, compassionate, and wary. Even more than the charged setup of enemies recuperating beneath one roof, Ivo’s personality draws an audience in. He may open his doors to men in need, but he’s savvy, private, and in his own way, territorial. He gets Ahmed and Nika to abstain from killing each other in his house, precisely because it is his house, and he’s their “savior” (as Ahmed puts it, sarcastically). Ivo is always straight with them, so the Chechen knows he means it when he says Abkhaz soldiers would kill him for harboring a Georgian (just as Georgians would for harboring an Abkhazian or Russian soldier or Chechen hired gun). But Ivo also keeps his distance from them. To him, they’re just “boys,” not merely because of their ages, but also because their patriotism is puerile—a weaponized version of “anything you can do, we can do better.” The older man proudly keeps a picture of his blossoming granddaughter in plain sight, but his guests must earn his trust before he reveals her name or anything else about her.

Lembit Ulfsak gives a greathearted performance. He’s a writer-director as well as an actor, and his presence alone, like Victor Sjöström’s in Bergman’s Wild Strawberries, suggests a lifetime of experiences absorbed through the pores. Without any actorly giveaways, he conveys Ivo’s ability to address a person on different levels, according to his closeness and reliability. Ulfsak’s performance can also be spontaneous and visceral. The panicked widening of Ivo’s eyes when he sees a small explosion down the road puts across all the shock and violation of life during wartime. After Ivo, Margus, and Juhan push a wrecked Georgian combat vehicle down the hill and out of sight, Juhan says he was expecting it to ignite, the way it would go off in the movies. In one of several mordant, funny strokes, Ivo drily says: “The cinema is a big fraud.”

Tangerines is anything but. It’s the rare film that’s sensitizing as well as horrifying. Nothing human is taken for granted. When Ivo and Margus bury Georgian bodies, Margus, though fed up and weary, folds each man’s arms over his chest. At Ivo’s request, he checks their uniforms for papers that could identify the corpses for family members who may search for them. Nuganen creates a modified Sancho Panza character. Initially he seems semi-ridiculous as he frets over his crop, but he comes off wiser as the movie goes along. He sees the awful irony of killings so ruinous and bloody being nicknamed “The Citrus War.” (Who knew that Abkhazia had a climate that was friendly to tangerines and eucalyptus trees?) When musing that his orchards survive everything, including the armies that surround them, he could be an Estonian cousin to the Carl Sandburg who wrote, “I am the grass; I cover all.”

In fact, Urushadze is sharp as a carpenter’s tack with all the characters and actors. He renders the growth of grudging respect between Ahmed and Niko incrementally and believably. Nakhashidze’s Ahmed at first seems all aggression, and Meskhi’s Niko all passive-aggressive arrogance. Then both actors prove adept at the poking and prodding that leads these hard guys to understand each other.

As a writer-director, Urushadze has the vision to come up with lingering images—like Ivo’s long, sensitive hands guiding pieces of wood to a buzzing saw—and the taste and the film sense to pick them up again only when needed. It’s quietly devastating when we realize that the carpenter must go through the same process whether making tangerine crates or coffins. Even narrative details as unassuming as Niko’s attempt to repair his favorite audiocassette tape have apt and often unexpected payoffs. Visually, the film is alive with autumnal colors and textures that are vibrant and changeable. Urushadze and his cinematographer, Rein Kotov, capture how the setting sun can make trees burst into red-orange colors, and their images of mist and cloud hanging near Margus’s home are as memorable as the Maloja Snake in Clouds of Sils Maria.

Best of all, Urushadze’s embrace of humanity includes a healthy dose of mordant comedy. It reminded me of an Abkhazian joke from the Soviet era that Mueller recounts in his book: “The Russians launch a lunar mission. So, the first two Cosmonauts land on the moon. When they get there, to their surprise, they find an Abkhazian. They ask him, ‘What are you doing here?’ He replies, ‘I heard there was a funeral on.’” There are several impromptu funerals in Tangerines, but this movie is a cause for celebration.

A Bittersweet Experience of War - New Eastern Europe  Dominik Wilczewski


Tangerines | Louis Proyect: The Unrepentant Marxist


Tangerines, Estonia's Oscar Nominee, is the Anti-American ...  Sam Efling from The New Repubic


East European Film Bulletin [Julia Zelman]


PopMatters [Renée Scolaro Mora]


PopMatters [Jon Lisi]


159 Movies that make you think [Jugu Abraham]


Review of TANGERINES movie by Lady Gaga Enguri


Sound On Sight (J.R. Kinnard)


Independent Ethos [Hans Morgenstern]


Film Review: Tangerines | FilmJournal International  Maria Garcia


'Tangerines': Enemies On Neutral Territory In A Time Of War ...  Tomas Hachard from NPR


Warsaw 2013 Review: TANGERINES, An Engrossing ... Patryk Czekaj fromTwitch


Joshua Reviews Zaza Urushadze's Tangerines [Theatrical ...  Joshua Brunsting


“Tangerines” | Movie Mezzanine  Kyle Turner


Tangerines / The Dissolve  Mike D’Angelo


'Tangerines': Review | Reviews | Screen - Screen International  Lee Marshall


Slant Magazine [Clayton Dillard] [Amber Wilkinson]


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Filmleaf [Chris Knipp]


Film Review: Tangerines | Consequence of Sound  Blake Goble


Film Review: Tangerines - The Awards Circuit  Shane Slater


The Oscar-nominated Tangerines is more interesting befor...  Adam Nayman from The Onion A.V. Club


Big-Hearted Indie Tangerines Stands Up to War by ...  Marsha McCreadie from The Village Voice

Review: Tangerines | Newcity Film  Ray Pride


Tangerines : An in-depth exploration of honour and ...  Laurence Boyce from Cineuropa


Zaza Urushadze's Tangerines -  Diane Sipple interview (2014)


'Tangerines': Film Review - The Hollywood Reporter  Stephen Farber


Variety [Dennis Harvey]


Review: 'Tangerines' - Los Angeles Times  Kenneth Turan


Tangerines - Roger Ebert  Susan Wloszczyna


Review: 'Tangerines' Is a Tale of War and Honor - The New ...  A.O. Scott from The New York Times


Tangerines (film) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vaclav, Petr

MARIAN                                A-                                94
Czechoslovakia  (107 mi)  1996
A raw, unflinching, bleak and powerful film based on a real-life Gypsy friend who was incarcerated nearly all his life under Socialist rehabilitation

Vadim, Roger

All-Movie Guide  Bruce Eder

Originally a stage actor, and also a part-time journalist and screenwriter, Roger Vadim came to film as an assistant to movie director Marc Allegret, and subsequently married Allegret's most well known discovery, Brigitte Bardot, whom he also starred with in numerous films of the 1950s. Vadim became internationally known for his 1956 debut film And God Created Woman, which trod new ground in eroticism during the 1950s, and also starred Bardot. His later films luxuriated in their lushness and decadence, a process that continued with Vadim's subsequent marriage to Jane Fonda, who also became one of his most renowned leading ladies. However, since the late 1960s, with the general opening up of American films to more overtly sexual content, Vadim's popularity and success outside of Europe have fallen off markedly, and an American remake of And God Created Woman (1988) provoked yawns as much as curiosity from critics and the public alike. Vadim and Fonda have since divorced.

Film Reference  John Baxter

With Et . . . Dieu créa la femme Roger Vadim created the commercial climate which made the nouvelle vague possible. Despite this, his reputation as director has always lagged behind that as a connoisseur of the beautiful women who inhabit his films. His relationships with Brigitte Bardot, Annette Stroyberg, Catherine Deneuve, Jane Fonda, and others established him, in English-speaking countries at least, as the archetypal "French" director. The American retitling of Le Repos du guerrier as Love on a Pillow, and Chateau en Suede as Nutty, Naughty Chateau, glumly emphasizes his raffish image.

Vadim claims in his fanciful autobiography that a prostitute provided by producer Raoul Levy to relieve the tedium of screenwriting furnished him with rationale for Bardot's character in Et . . . Dieu créa la femme—unselfishness. "If she's not interested in money, people won't think she's a whore." This motive recurs in Vadim's work, where generous, warm-hearted, and sensual women lavish their favors on indifferent, often evil love objects. Fulfillment comes only with death. In La Jeune Fille assassiné, Vadim even makes death in the throes of orgasm the sole ambition of his heroine, and his first American film, Pretty Maids All in a Row, casts Rock Hudson as an improbable mass-murdering psychiatrist in a girls' college.

For an artist with a single subject, Vadim has proved remarkably imaginative. Sait-on jamais exploits Venice with style, the Modern Jazz Quartet's chiming score harmonizing precisely with Vadim's romantic thriller. His lesbian vampire melodrama, Et mourir de plaisir, is among the lushest of horror films, enlivened by a clever use of color and a surrealist dream sequence which reminds one that he knew Cocteau and acted in La Testament d'Orphée. Jane Fonda never looked more beautiful than in the incest drama La Curée, and in Barbarella he turned Jean-Claude Forest's comic strip into something between Grand Guignol and an erotic tableau vivant. Even his lamentable American re-make of Et . . . Dieu créa la femme transformed Rebecca de Mornay from rural tart into temptress.

Vadim is at his best in the high style, where the material encourages grand gestures. Bardot in Le Repos du guerrier standing like the Winged Victory in a ruined church, face turned into a torrent of wind; Stroyberg in an eighteenth-century white gown gliding through the cypresses of Hadrian's Villa to Jean Prodromides's score of harp and pizzicati strings in Et mourir de plaisir—these are images that briefly transcend the novelettish material from which they spring.

Vadim, Roger  They Shoot Pictures, Don’t They

501 Movie Directors: A Comprehensive Guide to the Greatest Filmmakers


France  Italy  (90 mi)  1956  ‘Scope  co-director:  Raoul Lévy


Time Out

Cautiously titled And Woman...Was Created for its British release, this was the film that started the Bardot thing. Basically a clever piece of pre-New Wave programming with its St Tropez locations, 'daring' sex and amoral youth, it adds up to little more than a series of semi-nude posturings as the sex kitten flits nymphomaniacally from man to man and back again. But the lively characterisations and wry wit make the first half a good deal more watchable than most of Vadim's abject later creations. (Jeff Ulmer)

The release of the late Roger Vadim's debut film Et Dieu... créa la femme (...And God Created Woman) marked the turning point in the rise to fame of Brigitte Bardot, then 21, and skyrocketed her to the status of international sex symbol. Bardot's character, Juliette Hardy, is introduced stretched "bottoms up" across the 2.35:1 frame in all her naked glory (though skillfully avoiding any "obscene" exposure). I'm sure this scene caused heart failure for more than one censor, and an equally impressive response from the male audience of the time. The film is often credited as Bardot's screen debut, though it is actually her seventeenth (according to the enclosed booklet). ...And God Created Woman revolutionized the foreign film market, and may have single-handedly bashed down the prudish standards of the cinematic world, and opened the doors to more risqué work for future filmmakers.

Bardot plays a young woman raised in an orphanage and, now in her late teens, causes quite a stir with her behavior, attracting the attentions of men. The first suitor we meet is the much older Eric Carradine (Curt Jürgens), a rich land baron set on building a new casino in town. His plans are being hampered by the Tardieu family that owns a small shipyard on the stretch of land he requires for his development. Michel, the eldest Tardieu son, returns home for the weekend from Toulon to discuss the situation and finds Juliette anxious to pair up with him. His intentions for Juliette, however, are very short term, and he spurns her by he leaving town without her. Juliette's guardians have had just about enough of her antics, and threaten to send her back to the orphanage. To keep her in town, Carradine pleas with Michel to consider marrying her, which he laughs off, but his naïve younger brother Antoine (Jean-Loius Trintignant) rises to the challenge and proposes. Despite being in love with his older brother, she accepts. When Michel is contracted to return home for good, the trouble starts for the newlyweds, and all the men in her life come to realize just what she means to them.

Vadim (Bardot's husband at the time) captures Bardot's pure sensuality without any cheap devices. The nude scenes are handled with tactfully placed props or camera compositions. There are several sequences where Bardot's seductive qualities are highlighted, especially in her dance numbers. There is no denying her sex appeal, and though the storyline is far from overshadowed, it is easy to be distracted by the presence of one of film's most beautiful women occupying the screen. The St. Tropez locations are beautifully shot, and Vadim's use of composition shines in this widescreen presentation. He makes full use of the wide aspect ratio, often with characters occupying the extremes of the shot, or, as in Bardot's first appearance, by filling the screen with her. ...And God Created Woman is a feast for the eyes in more ways than one.

And God Created Woman   Criterion essay by Chuck Stephens, July 17, 2000


And God Created Woman (1956) - The Criterion Collection


Brigitte Bardot on DVD: Plucking the Daisy; The Night Heaven Fell ...   Alan Vanneman from Bright Lights Film Journal, January 1, 2002, also reviewing THE NIGHT HEAVEN FELL and PLUCKING THE DAISY


The Criterion Contraption: #77: And God Created Woman  Matthew Dessem


...And God Created Woman (Criterion Collection) | Film at The Digital Fix  Raphael Pour-Hashemi


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Doug Pratt's DVD Review


Nitrate Online (Eddie Cockrell)


The Onion A.V. Club [Nathan Rabin]   also reviewing THE NIGHT HEAVEN FELL


The New York Times (Bosley Crowther) [Gary W. Tooze]

NO SUN IN VENICE (Sait-on jamais…)

France  Italy  (96 mi)  1957

User reviews  from imdb Author: drbobgold from United States

I have been waiting to see this movie again for fifty years, and now I find that it was shown at MOMA in 2008. I was originally drawn to No Sun in Venice by the Modern Jazz Quartet's score, and the memory of the funeral scene on the Grand Canal as the black gondola's glided by with the procession to the MJQ piece entitled CORTEGE is a haunting one.

The music album is widely available on CD and DVD (though I am still playing the LP), but it goes so wonderfully with the gorgeous photography that it is a shame that the movie has never been released in the United States on VCR or DVD. Perhaps someone will discover and revive it as so many lesser movies of that era are so widely available.

User reviews  from imdb Author: pstumpf from United States

Venice in winter provides the reliably attractive setting for this movie that begins as a free-spirited romance and declines into a laughably Gothic melodrama.

Rather puzzlingly, it begins with a full-screen presentation of a Gerald McBoing Boing animation; about halfway through it, there's an insert shot of an audience laughing in a cinema, and the rest of the cartoon is shown on the smaller screen that the audience is watching. This sets up the flirtatious encounter between two exiting patrons Sophie (Francoise Arnoul) and Michel(Christian Marquand)(and also prompts the question - why a cartoon at the end of the show?). Despite a confrontation with Sforzi (Robert Hossein), who pretends to be Sophie's brother, but acts more like a jealous lover, Sophie brings Robert home to her room in a Venetian palazzo, which is owned by the reclusive Baron von Bergen (O.E. Hasse), protected by two comically ineffectual bodyguards. The baron is also jealous of Sophie, and Michel sensibly decides to treat his night with Sophie as a one-night stand. However, they can't keep away from each other; soon enough, money and murder lead to chases down Venetian alleyways and across rooftops and a predictably violent denouement.

Sumptuous settings and skillful cinematography keep the visuals consistently interesting; there's a wonderful shot, framed by an archway, of the lovers walking through the Piazza San Marco, with the pigeons erupting and flurrying about them. One surprising element is John Lewis's elegant score, played by the Modern Jazz Quartet; given the trashy story, one would expect a fully overstated sturm-und-drang score of the most old-fashioned kind. Lewis's spare and sparkling tunes lend a sophisticated patina to the junk on screen.

Seen, in a faded print with heavy magenta overtones, at MoMA on June 18, 2008.

Thanks for the Use of the Hall - Archive: Nakahira vs. Vadim, and ...  Dan Sallitt from Thanks for the Use of the Hall, June 3, 2008



France  Italy  (95 mi)  1958  ‘Scope


Time Out

Vadim's follow-up to And God Created Woman casts Bardot as a virgin sprung from convent school to live with her aunt and uncle, aristocrats of Franco's Spain. The impetuous cream puff falls in love at first sight with a hunky local (Boyd), and soon they're à bout de souffle - and on the run from the police. Whether bullfighting in a push-up bra or wrangling with a wayward towel, Bardot is gorgeous (the entire point, after all) and so are the azure CinemaScope skies of the Andalucia locations. (From a novel by Albert Vidale.) (Rich Rosell)

Director Roger Vadim stands along the likes of Francois Truffaut, Louis Malle and Jean-Luc Godard as one of the dominant names in the French New Wave school of filmmakers from the late 1950s through the 1960s. Like his compatriots, Vadim made daring films, especially to the relatively prim and proper American audiences of that time. In the States, his films were relegated to art houses, where his rebellious sexual themes would be theoretically nestled away from the eagerly impressionable minds of American moviegoers, despite the fact that audiences would seek out Vadim's works to ogle his latest starlet.

Here is one of my favorite Vadim quotes: "You wouldn't ask Rodin to make an ugly sculpture, or me to make a film with an ugly woman." He knows of what he speaks, since he is the man that chiseled the unbridled sexuality of Brigitte Bardot into celluloid with his 1956 directorial debut of ...And God Created Woman. Vadim and Bardot had been married since 1952, and though they would divorce in 1957, the two would continue to work together on a number of films. With the launch of international cinema's newest sex symbol, Vadim quickly cast the stunning Bardot in his 1957 release of Les Bijoutiers du Clair de Lune, or The Night Heaven Fell, remastered and released on DVD by Home Vision Entertainment.

Based on Albert Vidalie's novel The Moonlight Jewelers, Bardot stars as Ursula, a sexy, but virginal, young woman who leaves her convent(!) to vacation in a small village in rural Spain, where she is to stay with her Aunt Florentine (Alida Valli) and Uncle, the Count Ribera (Pepe Nieto). On her first day in Spain, Ursula meets rugged Lamberto (Stephen Boyd), a man who has some major issues with the Count, whom he blames for causing the death of his sister. This doesn't prevent Ursula from falling in love at first sight with Lamberto, and of course this leads to some dramatic confrontations. The Count is a perverted creep, constantly pawing at his niece Ursula, and Lamberto's anger leads to violence, which turn him into a wanted man.

But The Night Heaven Fell is not simply the story of Ursula and Lamberto, and their lusty, bad boy/good girl attraction to each other. Aunt Florentine herself is a wee bit on the sexually frustrated side, and it is her own desires for Lamberto that stirs things up. As the two women struggle with their feelings, it becomes evident that Lamberto the stud is drawn to both. Secrets and betrayal bubble beneath the surface, and by the time the film hits midpoint, it is unclear as to where his true feelings lie.

Much can be said for Vadim's filmmaking skills, though this film certainly pales to the far superior ....And God Created Woman (the original, not his tepid 1988 remake). Here, the sweeping Spanish scenery, shot in the vastness of Cinemascope, seems to often overpower the actors, and that is not something you wish to see in a Bardot film. Likewise, the script lurches around awkwardly during the first twenty minutes, enough to really test my mettle about actually wanting to finish the film.

The downfall is the agonizing pacing of the script, which meanders here and there, with only occasional scenes of substance. This is not indicative of a typical Vadim film, though his strong visual style is always present. For the most part, the acting is adequate, with Valli proving her worth as a truly underrated actress. It's just that the overall experience is not entirely engaging.

However, a Vadim film, if anything, is a study in beauty, and Bardot is really what The Night Heaven Fell is all about, when all is said and done. She literally makes Marilyn Monroe look like a frumpy librarian. Bardot, with those wonderfully pouty lips, exudes sex appeal like no one else, and while perhaps not the world's best actress, she does manage to combine a steamy blend of young lust and innocence. Vadim provides many tempting shots of Bardot throughout, but it was her brief nude scene here that was considered "scandalous" in 1958, and only served to escalate her notoriety as a wanton sex symbol.

For me, a highpoint of The Night Heaven Fell was the pairing of Bardot with Alida Valli. Valli, who in her twilight years would appear in Suspiria, first captured my eye with her stellar turns in The Third Man (1947) and most notably The Paradine Case (1949). I recall watching The Paradine Case years and years ago, and being utterly transfixed by Valli's performance, and her timeless beauty. Here Vadim cast her as the not-quite middle aged aunt, who Ursula convinces can still be a sexual being. Valli can deliver more intensity with a single stare than most actresses can do with six pages of dialogue.

The Night Heaven Fell is not a completely memorable film, and the script is burdened with barely enough content to last 93 minutes. From a historical perspective though, it is easy to understand the unabashed sex appeal of Bardot, and how she became the fantasy woman for so many men. Thanks to Vadim, we still have that to hold on to.

User reviews from imdb Author: ironside ( from Mexico

In 1956, Roger Vadim made a sensational debut as a motion picture director with 'And God Created Woman', a daringly erotic film that challenged conventional views of romanticism... Vadim presented the nude body of his young wife, Brigitte Bardot, in all the splendor of CinemaScope with beautiful Technicolor photography...

Along with Francois Truffaut, Louis Malle, Jean-Luc Godard, Jacques Demy and Agnes Varda, Vadim was one of the founding members of the revolutionary French New Wave, to push the sexual archetype...

His subsequent films revealed him to be an accomplished European filmmaker with an eye for visual beauty and decorative elegance, but in content, his films have often been superficial and lacking in narrative strength... Sexual relations have been a recurrent theme in his films, the plot of which have often revolved around the undisputed beauty of his succession of wives - Brigitte Bardot, Annette Stroyberg, and Jane Fonda...

"The Night Heaven Fell" is the second collaboration between Vadim and Bardot... Vadim seems to have attempted to recapture the freshness and essence of the 'B.B.' he had helped to shape, but the re-creation escaped him, despite the careful choice of Albert Vidalie's novel and the casting of Stephen Boyd as leading man...

Bardot's innocently natural mannerisms had disappeared, and it seemed that she no longer needed Vadim to make use of her talents as an accomplished actress... Claude Autant-Lara succeeded much more with his film, 'Love Is My Profession,' playing Brigitte opposite Jean Gabin and Edwige Feuillere... Bardot came off as more than a sexual image, her persona giving life to the character she portrayed...

Filmed in Franco's Spain, "The Night Heaven Fell" is a sunburned film noir, beautifully photographed in Color and CinemaScope...

Bardot plays Ursula, a beautiful convent girl vacationing in a small village in rural Spain where her patient and passive Aunt Florentine and her rude uncle, the Count Ribera (Pepe Nieto), live... Upon her arrival, she's hunted by the handsome and forceful Lamberto (Stephen Boyd), who's looking to avenge the death of his poor sister...

The sexually repressed Florentine desires intensely Lamberto who kills her husband, seduces her, and escapes with her rebellious, capricious and highly provocative niece Ursula...

The air of harshness is at the heat of all of the main characters: Ursula's challenging sexuality; Count Ribera's lecherous advances; Lamberto's acts of vengeance; and most of all, the unusual beauty and natural charm of Florentine, played by the great Italian actress Alida Valli, from Carol Reed's The Third Man.

There's a scene in the film that takes place during the Count's funeral where we see Alida Valli stopping in the village streets and a veil covers her face... In front of Boyd, she takes off her dark veil, and stares, in silence, at his face... Her new feminist disposition was loading all her unconscious feelings...

In the fifties, Bardot emerged as a new type of sex symbol, flashing her sexual exuberance... Her performances as a child of nature responding to the call of sensuality, were a deliciously strange elixir to all of us growing up in that time...

Clothed in a breakaway towel, décolletage, bathing suits, or nude, this truly luscious coquette was enough to drive us into a kaleidoscope of dynamic excitement...

Brigitte Bardot on DVD: Plucking the Daisy; The Night Heaven Fell ...   Alan Vanneman from Bright Lights Film Journal, January 1, 2002, also reviewing THE NIGHT HEAVEN FELL and PLUCKING THE DAISY


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DVD ("Fusion3600")


DVD Savant (Glenn Erickson)   also reviewing PLUCKING THE DAISY


The Onion A.V. Club [Nathan Rabin]  also reviewing AND GOD CREATED WOMAN


The New York Times (Bosley Crowther)


DANGEROUS LIASONS (Les Liasons Dangereuses)

France  Italy  (106 mi)  1959


Time Out

Anyone familiar with the Frears (Dangerous Liaisons) and Forman (Valmont) versions will immediately see the problem about updating this story. The innocence and lack of guile which the preyed-upon characters must embody is not convincingly available in a contemporary setting and neither, therefore, is the cruelty which exploits those qualities; and Annette Vadim's flight into madness would surely have lacked conviction even in 1782, when de Laclos was writing. Though this is the weakest of the three adaptations, it does have in Moreau and Philipe the choicest of scheming monsters. The Thelonious Monk score natters on, without discernible relevance; and Vadim himself appears at the start to put us right about men and women, deploying with exquisite negligence his cigarette holder, the overcoat draped around his shoulders. What did all those gorgeous women see in this noodle?

Chicago Reader (Jonathan Rosenbaum)

Surprisingly, Roger Vadim's "contemporary" pseudoadaptation of Choderlos de Laclos' 18th-century masterpiece Les liaisons dangereuses--the film's title now in English and the year of the original U.S. release added--hasn't dated at all. It's just as silly as it ever was--a surprisingly puritanical reading of the novel that tries strenuously to seem depraved. There's a fadeout before every bout of lovemaking, and the comeuppance of the plot's two leading characters, whom Vadim comically turns into a married couple (Gerard Philipe and Jeanne Moreau), is a lot more moralistically severe than anything meted out to them in the novel. Beginning with a hokey on-camera appearance by Vadim himself explaining the story's moral, the movie unleashes fancy (if gratuitous) mise en scene around its trendy libertine and Barbie-doll characters, who spend their time at parties and at a Swiss ski resort, with jazz by Thelonious Monk and others used like ambient wallpaper. There are at least a dozen French films released in 1960 better than this one, but it's reasonably diverting on its own limited terms. Scripted by Roger Vailland and Claude Brule; with Annette Vadim, Jeanne Valerie, Simone Renant, and a very young looking Jean-Louis Trintignant, who was previously featured in Vadim's better and more genuinely antibourgeois And God Created Woman.  Christopher Null

Roger Vadim, who showed a remarkable lack of self-restraint in films like Barbarella and Don Juan (or If Don Juan Were a Woman), was far more muted in his jazz-infused updating of Dangerous Liaisons, set in then-modern-day Paris but keeping the guts of the story nearly intact.

In Vadim's rendition, Valmont (Gérard Philipe) is married to Juliette de Merteuil (Jeanne Moreau), and together they get their kicks by preying on the weaknesses of other high-society types. Juliette sets her sights on Cecile (Jeanne Valérie), soon to be married to someone who has crossed her in the past, and sets Vamont onto turning the innocent (but naive and manipulatable) girl into a sexpot-in-training. Meanwhile, Valmont falls in love with the genuinely virtuous Marianne (Annette Vadim), and a love-quadrangle soons spins out of control.

The film has a few key departures -- and a somewhat more satisfying ending -- that make it worthwhile, even if you've seen the three other major adaptations of the infamous book. Philipe is the most effective member of the cast -- the three female leads don't really distinguish themselves from each, with the mild exception of Moreau, who's always worth watching in anything she does. The soundtrack by Thelonious Monk is outstanding, worth listening to even if the film itself doesn't interest you.

Whether the film's "liaisons" manage to titillate you is debatable. The book's darkness and cynicism are largely lost here, and the actors play their characters far too sweetly. By the last act, few surprises remain in store for us, though it's been a considerably pleasant (and very French) experience in getting there.

Washington Post [Desson Howe]

Twenty-nine years before British director Stephen Frears's recent wig-and-powdered "Dangerous Liaisons," with Glenn Close, John Malkovich and Michelle Pfeiffer, there was "Les Liaisons Dangereuses," a rompy French version directed by Roger Vadim, who was just over a dangerous liaison himself with Brigitte Bardot.

Updating Choderlos de Laclos' novel (written 177 years before that), Vadim set the bedroom intrigue against a Parisian eve-of-the-'60s world of jazz and sexual permissiveness, cast French siren Jeanne Moreau as predatory Juliette (the Close role in Frears's film) and gave his wife Annette Vadim the innocent-prey role (later played by Pfeiffer).

What Vadim couldn't have known was how his movie, now retitled "Dangerous Liaisons 1960" (and made in 1959), would have played at Key Theatre 1989 with its dated air of finger-snapping cool; or how he comes across now, sauntering on-camera in a ham-fisted director's introduction, casting aside a black cape and saying things like, "Ah don' wan' yoo to sink that in France, all women be'ave lak Juliette."

Uh, Roger . . .

To watch the movie, though, is still fabulous -- not because it's a Great Film -- but because it bounces along as if it were a great film. Made during the heyday of the French "Nouvelle Vague," the movement that launched Francois Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard and several other directors, it aspires to cinematic hipness -- the camera peeps at the sexual players from behind chairs, even from under the sheets, and there's a wonderful music track supplied by Thelonious Monk.

But, as with so many other French movies and songs, "Liaisons 19-whatever" is blithely unaware of its French prissiness -- which makes it all the more fun to watch.

Picture then-young vixen Moreau parading around in an ocelot fur coat and married to fellow sexual hunter Gerard Philipe (imagine "Hawaii Five-0's" Jack Lord imitating "The Thin Man's" William Powell imitating Maurice Chevalier); the two swinger-vampires are constantly sniffing the city lovescape for fresh blood. Or a young Jean-Louis Trintignant playing a geeky, marriage-shy mathematician. Or the jazz club-den where, as a climactic death takes place, inspired "Negro" jazzmen -- frequently movie metaphors for "decadence" -- wail and jam in the background, amorally oblivious to the foreground hanky-panky.

Mondo Digital


Doug Pratt's Laserdisc Review


The New York Times (Bosley Crowther)


BLOOD AND ROSES (Et Mourir de Plaisir)

France  Italy  (87 mi)  1960  ‘Scope


PopcornQ Review  Jenni Olson

Annette Vadim stars as the sexy Carmilla in this lush and provocative Italian-made feature. Seduced by her lesbian vampire ancestor who takes over her body, the lusty Carmilla first jumps a young maid, and then her beautiful cousin. Although the cousin is engaged to be married, the women make eyes at each other throughout the film (in that Euro-soft-porn sort of way), and director Roger Vadim plays up every lesbionic inch of it. Not as dirty as the Hammer Studio's lesbian vampire movies (The Vampire Lovers, Twins of Evil, and Lust for a Vampire), much more lively and very well produced.

User reviews from imdb Author: Matthew Patton (mp99) from Deltona, FL

To call BLOOD AND ROSES Roger Vadim's best film is probably not saying that much, when you consider what you're working with. Suffice to say, he pays more attention to plot and character than usual and never allows his attraction to decorative visuals to overwhelm the story (wispy as it is).

The wisp of story here is derived vaguely from Sheridan LeFanu's "Carmilla." A young woman (Annete Stroynberg), passionately attracted to her cousin (Mel Ferrer), becomes enraged at his engagement to another (Elsa Martinelli), and may be possessed by the spirit of a vampiric ancestor, Mylorka. Certainly, people begin dying after a fireworks display that caps a ball held to celebrate the engagement goes wrong and disturbs Mylorka's tomb. And as the time of the wedding approaches, it looks as if Martinelli may join all of the unfortunate women who died just before they tried to married Ferrer's ancestor, possibly victims of Mylorka.

The film, shot on location in some of the prettiest stretches of the French and Italian countryside by Claude Renoir, has a wonderful burnished look to it, like an expensive luxury item. The gowns that the ladies wear, courtesy of couture designer Marcel Escoffier, certainly help, and the musical score by Jean Promides, obviously inspired by 18th-century French and Italian sources, gives the whole enterprise an extra note of grace. There is little or no overt violence, and, rare in a Vadim film, no nudity, although he certainly goes out of his way, as ever, to make his leading ladies as enticing and glamorous as possible (and because of his discretion, succeeds more than usual). Mel Ferrer is his usual amused self, not a great actor by any means, but a pleasant presence. Annette Stroynberg was hardly an actress at all, but her very placidity, occasionally disturbed by odd little flickers of something unsettling, is rather effective here. Elsa Martinelli, even dubbed as she is here, is quite effective, bubbly, sweet, and brimming with imperilled innocence, just as the heroine of a vampire movie should be. All in all, a horror movie tasteful enough that the kids can probably watch it (at least the older ones) and adult enough to keep Mom and Dad awake as well. Not something one can say for AND GOD CREATED WOMAN (which I, at least, consider to be a horror film--or at least a horror OF a film . . .)

Cinebeats [Kimberly Lindbergs]


Communist Vampires  Thomas M. Sipos


The SF, Horror and Fantasy Film Review  Richard Scheib  Fernando F. Croce


The New York Times (Howard Thompson)


PLEASE NOT NOW (La Bride Sur le Cou)

France  (85 mi)  1961  ‘Scope  co-directors:  Jean Aurel and JD Trop (as Jack Dunn Trop)


Doug Pratt's DVD Review  (excerpt)

The Collection is a boxed set includes all four films along with a 63 documentary profile, Brigitte Bardot...Take One . The films are all lightweight entertainments, but they have enough eccentric features to attract fans, and they all have the Marilyn Monroe of France--Bardot, who, especially in these features from the late Fifties and Sixties, looked and often acted like a flirtatious child in an adult woman’s body.

We had a near-constant grin on our face as we watched Roger Vadim’s 1961 romantic comedy, La Bride sur le Cou, or Please Not Now! . The film’s theme music is a folk rendition of La Bamba , and that is the tone the show follows, playing almost like a Richard Lester movie or something. Although it has moments of pure, delightful absurdity (there is a marvelous comical sequence involving levitation), the narrative maintains the breathless logic of a brook running downhill. Bardot is an easily distracted model whose lover has become engaged to another woman. When she protests by throwing a pie in his face at a restaurant, a young surgeon becomes smitten with her and begins to woo her as she plans further revenge against the lover who jilted her. The balance of attention on one idea or one scene to the next is near perfect. The 89 minute film begins with a car rushing through the streets of Paris and never slows down, so as it flits from sequence to sequence you’re drawn right along. The performances are wonderful. Bardot is both exquisite and funny, and you have no problem believing that she would drive the men around her to distraction.

The picture quality is also outstanding. The black-and-white image is spotless and contrasts are precise. Except for some tiling in the shadows on walls that disrupt an otherwise bouncy dance scene, there are no artifacting flaws. The presentation is in letterboxed format only, with an aspect ratio of about 2.35:1 and an accommodation for enhanced 16:9 playback. The monophonic sound is okay and the film is in French with optional English subtitles that appear beneath the image. There is an original American full screen trailer that emphasizes the film’s teasing nude scenes, and a profile of Bardot. (Mark Zimmer)

In 1961, when Bardot was despairing and attempted suicide, she was still doing romantic screwball comedies such as Please Not Now, a picture directed by her former husband, Roger Vadim. While these sexy comedies are somewhat formulaic, this one is energized by a vivacious performance by Bardot and a properly wacky supporting cast, including an out-of-control hypnotist.

Model Sophie (Bardot) is in love with her photographer boyfriend, Philippe Belmas (Jacques Riberolles). But Philippe has other plans, which involve running off with American slaughterhouse heiress Barbara Wilbury (Josephine James). Bardot, already the animal lover, comments that Wilbury "looks like the kind of person who would kill little animals." Running into Alain (Michel Subor) at a restaurant, she soon uses Alain to plot her revenge, first by making Philippe jealous, and then by taking Barbara out of the picture permanently, in the tradition of Sophie's murderous Corsican grandmother. The action gets wild and woolly on the slopes of Villars-de-Lans, as Sophie plots to get even while Alain plots to get Sophie for himself. Topping it all off is a lengthy fantasy sequence which features Bardot dancing first with only a towel and then without.

Bardot is at her most iconic here, with impossibly long eyelashes, elaborate wigs and pouty beestung lips. She seems to be having a good time with the role and puts a good deal into it. She has some fun slapstick moments, such as brainlessly blowing up the gas stove in her apartment. Riberolles is a typically colorless romantic interest; Subor is marginally better since he is willing to stop at nothing to win Sophie (in a decidedly non-PC moment of desperation, he forces her to disrobe at gunpoint). Serge Marquand is entertaining as Prince Shribouyoune Bayane, an Indian prince reduced to using his hypnotic powers in a nightclub act; unfortunately, he doesn't have the best control over his powers. Mireille Darc inexplicably gets third billing even though she has two brief scenes as Philippe's assistant, and displays no particular interest in the part.

Vadim's direction is for the most part pedestrian and workmanlike. He does, however, have his moments; one of the best of these is an amusing split-screen effect where we see both of the couples warring; as they push against the barrier, it moves and crowds the other couple tightly until they push back. The stylized nude sequence was notorious at the time and often severely cut. It's fairly modest in retrospect, filmed through a heavy fog which leaves most everything to the imagination. Anchor Bay says that it is presented complete and uncut here for the first time on video.

Please Not Now!  Michael den Boer


DVD Review e-zine   Guido Henkel


Fulvue Drive-in   Nicholas Sheffo


THE SEVEN DEADLY SINS (Les Sept Péchés Capitaux)

France  Italy  (113 mi)  1962  co-directors:  Philippe de Broca, Claude Chabrol, Jacques Demy, Sylvain Dhomme, Max Douy, Jean-Luc Godard, Eugène Ionesco, Edouard Molinaro


User reviews from imdb Author: Bob Taylor (

This is a blend of the bad, commercial work of journeymen French directors and the exciting new wave of Godard, Chabrol and Demy. Anger is the first sin to be treated, and Sylvain Dhomme does a terrible job with this silly story of flies in the soup provoking world catastrophe. Molinaro's version of Envy is no better. Philippe de Broca gets a fine hammy performance from Georges Wilson in Gluttony; some great satire of French country eating habits here. Jacques Demy is next with Lust, and he loses steam with a static visual style (none of the grace of Lola) and stiff acting. We can only surmise what he could have done with a better script.

Godard has the best segment, he's got Eddy Constantine playing a loafer for a change, not his Lemmy Caution-like nerveless violence. The cheesy Hawaiian music suits the story well. It's more verite than we are used to from Godard. After Sloth, we get Pride from Roger Vadim, and the banality of the story is relieved by some good acting by Sami Frey and Marina Vlady. I always thought it was a shame Vlady wasn't more popular; she had a gorgeous sleek cat's face and could do comedy. Chabrol is last with Greed, and he shows the usual facility and empty social commentary we have come to expect from him.

User reviews from imdb Author: dbdumonteil

This is a pretty mediocre film made up of sketches. Julien Duvivier did a lot better with "le diable et les dix commandements," and he did all the segments single-handedly .

Only Godard snubs can enjoy the sloth sketch which is a saddening bore, with Eddie Constantine, an actor who made duds by the dozen.The anger sketch recalls the silent movies era,that is to say it's modern! Philippe De Broca's part is vulgarity itself, which is amazing coming from a director known for his elegance. There's nothing to expect from Roger Vadim, whose movies have not worn well, it's the least we can say.

Edouard Molinaro will be dismissed by the "connoisseurs" just because he's not part of the new wave; however his sketch is not that much bad. But the two best segments are Chabrol's and Demy's .

Demy's "lust," abetted by two peerless thespians, Laurent Terzieff and Jean-Louis Trintignant, blends present and past when the latter, still a young kid, didn't know what "lust" meant. This is the most daring sketch, even featuring furtive nudities.

Chabrol's segment ends up the movie on an unpretentious welcome note .The "polytechniciens" putting their problem -how can we sleep with the de luxe prostitute?- in equation is one of the funniest moment of the whole movie.

Two sketches and a half:  you make it on the percentages but lose out on the bonuses.So why don't you try Duvivier's "le diable et les dix commandements" instead? No, Duvivier is no part of the new wave. It's not a crime, is it?

Vern's review

LOVE ON A PILLOW (Le Repos du guerrier)

France  Italy  (102 mi)  1962  ‘Scope


User reviews from imdb Author: asgardsrei1 from Deutschland

This film is classic Roger Vadim, down to the sexual theme, the gorgeous cinematography, and the incomparable Brigitte Bardot. A young heiress becomes involved with an abusive, power-hungry alcoholic. She loves this crude man, though he treats her savagely, until she begins to realize her own power. When she leaves this man to his own devices, he falls apart, and realizes that he, in fact needs her, and loves her. Basically a battle of the sexes, and she wins. This sounds like a simple story, but Roger Vadim elevates this into a thing of power and beauty, with his extraordinary film technique. His admiration for Bardot is apparent, as he films her 'god-like'. This is classic cinema, and very French in it's style. Feauturing some wonderful late 1960's jazz music, this is a very sexy film, one of the finest Bardot/Vadim efforts. I don't understand the negative reviews. I think it is unfortunate that the DVD for this one is so rare, and goes for over a hundred dollars if you can find it. Along the lines of films like "The Servant", and "Nine & a Half Weeks" in the subject matter of the sexual power struggle between two people. A fine film, worth a look.

User reviews from imdb Author: writerasfilmcritic from western US

"Love On a Pillow" is a dubbed French film starring Brigitte Bardot at her most beautiful and alluring. An existentialist writer, artist, and musician from Paris attempts suicide in Dijon. He is saved when a lovely young Parisian girl, in town to claim a substantial inheritance left her by a rich aunt, mistakenly opens his hotel room door and finds him near death from an overdose of sleeping pills. Thereafter, he becomes her responsibility, they fall in love, and his abject alcoholism and stubborn cynicism both torment and liberate her. In the process, we see her transformed from an attractive young woman into a sexy beat hipster, and finally into a ravishing goddess who defines feminine beauty. It is very evident in this film why Bardot was considered one of the most captivating actresses of the early sixties. Particularly toward the end of the movie, there are closeups of her that take your breath away. The film's setting is very interesting, as well -- among artists and jazz musicians in Paris in the early sixties. The score is simple but ethereal. There is one touching scene in a café in Florence where the lovers are momentarily content and at peace. A guitarist approaches their table singing a pretty Italian love ballad. The man appears annoyed, then in a sudden outburst, chases away the musician because "that song has memories." The incident may reveal what is really bothering him. At the conclusion, the film's understated score moves to a poignant crescendo. "Love On a Pillow" is not just a beautiful film. It is easily Bardot's finest effort.

DVD Savant (Glenn Erickson)   reviewing the 5-film Brigitte Bardot Collection, also seen here:  Turner Classic Movies

1962's Love on a Pillow (Le repos du guerrier) reunites Bardot with director Roger Vadim, now no longer her husband. The story is interesting but ponderous; it seems to go on much longer than its 102 minutes. In Dijon to collect an inheritance, Geneviève Le Thiel (Bardot) opens the wrong hotel room and inadvertently interrupts the suicide of Renaud Sarti (Robert Hossein). Becoming "the owner of his soul," Geneviève at first cannot get rid of Renaud but soon succumbs to his charms. She dismisses her fiancé and shacks up with Renaud in her attractive Paris apartment. For his part, Renaud refuses to admit that he needs Geneviève or even believes in love. He reads Don Quixote while toying with her affections, lying and taking to drink. The pair meet up with Renaud's sculptor friend Katov (James Robertson Justice of Land of the Pharaohs, dubbed into French) and his girl Raphaële (Macha Méril of Belle du jour and Deep Red). At a wild party, Geneviève is humiliated by Renaud's insistence that fidelity and jealousy don't matter. Relocating to Florence, Renaud's drinking worsens. He claims he's trying to drive Geneviève away, that he'll destroy her if she doesn't leave. He picks up a prostitute right in front of her. Katov asks Geneviève if she's willing to 'go all the way' to the end of Renaud's self-inflicted torment.

The original title translates to The Warrior's Rest and the original book source probably related Renaud's soul-sickness to wartime experiences. Roger Vadim covers the narrative but doesn't provide a satisfying ending. The pace slows as Geneviève's trials become more predictable. Vadim indulges in titillating near-nudity and decorative camera angles effects unconnected to the characters. A split diopter allows a giant close-up of Bardot to share the screen with action in the distance, keeping both in focus.

The interesting Houssein has an acting edge on Bardot; it's really his movie. He convinces as a selfish creep with unlimited reserves of hateful remarks: "Love is an abyss. I don't care." Bardot has only her signature pout and some tears to work with; she's either happy or unhappy with few gradients in between. We so thoroughly despise Renaud that the ending reconciliation doesn't work. Vadim stages it in a windswept Florentine ruin, an overly dramatic gambit that can't mask the absence of a real character conversion.

BFI | Sight & Sound | DVD review: Brigitte Bardot 5-Film Collection (0)  Tim Lucas, December 2009

CRITIC'S CHOICE; New DVDs  Dave Kehr from The New York Times

VICE AND VIRTUE (Le Vice et la Vertu)

France  Italy  (108 mi)  1963  ‘Scope


Time Out

De Sade was all over the publicity for this film, but is excluded from its credits. Nevertheless, it's Justine and Juliette updated to 1944-45. Justine (Deneuve), churchgoing, loyal to her fiancé in the Resistance, is forcibly consigned to an SS brothel in the Tyrol. Meanwhile her sister Juliette (Girardot) is infatuated with a Gestapo brute who lets her sit in on his torture sessions. Only the cast makes this worth a look. The sex contrives to be both tame and vulgar, and Vadim's fancy lighting effects - dimming out the set in mid-scene and putting a spot on the characters - just looks silly. What with this and Pasolini's odious Salò, it's clear that Sade and WWII are subjects best treated separately.

User reviews from imdb Author: Rod Evan from Amsterdam, Netherlands

Anybody who has seen Pasolini's 'Salo' will realise that Pasolini owed a debt to Vadim as the similarities in certain sections of the film are perfectly obvious. The key scene in relation to 'Salo' is when the 'victims' enter the chateau and once they are in the chateau suffer the same sort of torments as in Pasolini's film.

The basic difference between the two films is that despite the horrific subject matter Vadim retains a sense of romanticism which Pasolini rejected. It is a great pity this film is not more widely available on video as it is beautifully shot in scope with a delirious score that mixes Gotterdammerung with 'Les Parapluies de Cherbourg'!

The acting, especially from Annie Girardot is exemplary. You can see why this actress gave a such a terrific performance recently in 'La Pianiste'. It was however one of Deneuve's first roles and like all her early films she was not at her best, but clearly decorative.

A 'must-see' film for all those film lovers who have appreciated the likes of 'The Night Porter' and Visconti's 'The Damned'.

User reviews from imdb Author: dbdumonteil

Outside the fact that both works ("le vice et la vertu" and "salo' ) take place during WW2,it's absolutely impossible to compare an auteur like Pasolini to a mediocre third-rate drudge whose works have not worn well at all:"And God created woman" and the first version of "les liaisons dangereuses" are dated old hat stuff.

Vadim's movie is entertaining,if it's not taken literally:it's a farce which recalls erotic comics of the sixties,particularly the scenes in the baroque castle where Hossein and Girardot give the victims (including the latter's clueless sister Justine-Deneuve- and the future Bond villainess Luciana Paluzzi) a rough time .

Pasolini's work will hurt you,shock you,leave you completely depressed and exhausted .Vadim's will make you laugh ,and wonder why all these talented actors got lost is this masquerade.

The New York Times (Eugene Archer)


LA RONDE (The Round)

France  Italy  (110 mi)  1964  ‘Scope


Slant Magazine [Ed Gonzalez]


Jean-Luc Godard was right when he said Roger Vadim was "with it." The man didn't make good movies but he knew what audiences wanted to see. Scarcely a master of social interrogation, Vadim was content hawking middlebrow smut, which usually meant parading whatever women he was fucking in front of his camera. One could say that the only pulse he was particularly good at taking was his own. La Ronde grafts the sexual exploits of a close-knit gaggle of bourgeois dopes into a lifeless vision of art-nouveau Paris. Not only is the film obviously inferior to Max Ophüls's 1950 version of the Arthur Schnitzler play Reigen, but it cowers in the shadow of Luis Buñuel's vivaciously twisted The Diary of a Chambermaid. Released the same year, Buñuel's film was similarly spiked with perversion but was seriously concerned with revealing the cracks of bourgeois existence. Buñuel stood generously outside his film, allowing his audience to sift through the cultural and emotional baggage buried beneath its thorny tangle of fetishistic signs. Vadim isn't quite as inventive: La Ronde is two soulless hours of sexual musical chairs and popping bodices. It's a personal film in the sense that Vadim's presence is felt within every frame, but this charisma doesn't register visually or theoretically but lecherously, usually through the single-minded sexual ambitions of the story's attractive men. A scene early in the film, in which Vadim's camera pans across a garden as statues happily respond to a couple's fornication, also begs a comparison to another, infinitely wiser Buñuel film: L'Age d'Or, in which a woman flips her finger at tradition by kneeling at the feet of a statue and sucking its toe. What's truly transgressive in Buñuel's films is flattened in La Ronde, and like the women Vadim married in real life, the women in his films seem interchangeable. If you must see La Ronde, see it only for the amusing expression on Jane Fonda's face when her character Sophie's husband reaches into her blouse and starts kneading her breasts with his hungry hands. Her expression of boredom and disgust mirrors our own.


DVD Savant (Glenn Erickson)

Roger Vadim was France's mainstream bad-boy filmmaker for over twenty-five years, and much less famous as a director than he was for marrying a succession of sex-queen starlets. He made the first into a bona-fide star: Brigitte Bardot, in ... And God Created Woman. After that, he married Bardot look-alike Annette Stroyberg, a partnership that begat a rarely screened horror film, Blood and Roses. Catherine Deneuve was also notably linked with Vadim, but Jane Fonda became the director's next wife. Vadim's secret for a busy love life with some of Europe's most beautiful women may have centered on his track record as a star-maker -- Fonda seems to have gravitated to the director to re-start a sagging career. Vadim obviously knew how to make actresses feel desirable and beautiful. The majority of his his ex-wives and lovers remained friends; Bardot returned in 1973 to star for Vadim, in yet another mini-epic about an overheated female for conquest, If Don Juan Were a Woman.

Most of Roger Vadim's movies are about seduction in one form or another. His update of Les liaisons dangereuses with Gérard Philipe and Jeanne Moreau is one of his best films. When classical inspiration dried up Vadim turned to genre work and finally to softcore tease pictures. La ronde is literally one seduction after another in an amorous chain of genteel couplings. With variations, the formula served Vadim again in Pretty Maids All In a Row.

A prostitute (Marie Dubois) picks up a soldier (Claude Giraud), who seduces a housemaid (Anna Karina), who seduces the son of her employer (Jean-Claude Brialy), who visits his lover (Jane Fonda), who sleeps with her husband, who takes a casual pickup (Catherine Spaak) to a private dining room. The pickup is promoted by a playwright (Bernard Noël), who renews an old affair with an actress (Francine Bergé), who is visited by a Count (Jean Sorel), who meets the prostitute. "La ronde" is presented as a cycle of seduction and pleasure.

La ronde started life as a play by Arthur Schnitzler, whose other turn-of-the-century scandal Traumnovelle eventually became Stanley Kubrick's film Eyes Wide Shut. Although progressive and thoughtful for 1900, both stories have dated central themes. La ronde's cyclic progression from one partner to another, an erotic relay, no longer seems fanciful or even desirable in a world with better knowledge of STDs. Schnitzler's ever-changing skit format would be lifted as a recurring motif for message movies: There have been several pictures about a stolen handgun moving from owner to owner, or a banknote passing through a series of illicit transactions. Tales of Manhattan is a Julien Duvuvier classic that creates a portrait of society by following a fancy topcoat through a succession of owners.

The classic adaptation of La ronde is Max Ophuls' far wittier version done back in 1950. It uses a stream of clever visual jokes to enliven Schnitzler's confectionary structure. A master of ceremonies character seemingly arranges the liaisons between the lovers, and shows us a carousel representing the evanescent allure of sex. When one character experiences impotence, the carousel breaks down. When a scene threatens to become too erotic, the master of ceremonies halts the film, and physically edits out the offending segment!

Vadim's La ronde is a literal version of Schnitzler's play in period dress, without theatrical intrusions or satiric jibes at its adult content. A simple waltz theme is used to link the stories. Screenwriter Jean Anouilh adds a few philosophical observations that merely underline the basic games that are being played. Vadim's only visible objective is to make the seductions as attractive as possible. The women seem well aware of what is going on, and are often in control of the situation. The seduction of Anna Karina's meek housemaid is revealed to have been mostly consentual, when we later see her invite the attentions of her employer's son. Catherine Spaak's afternoon pickup turns out to be a master manipulator, and Francine Bergé's actress is an old pro at juggling lovers.

Thus Vadim's film is a mild oo-la-la trifle best suited as an ice-breaking date movie for frustrated Frenchmen: Everybody seems to be having sex, an activity that leaves only beautiful memories. As all the lovers remain ignorant of the game beyond their own two 'connections,' their infidelity and selfishness never becomes an issue. Unwanted children and other unpleasant complications are drowned out by pretty color and charming waltz music.

Vadim's main directorial contribution is to make all of his actresses look attractive and distinctive. His picture moves slowly and the format bogs down at least two links before the circle of lovers is closed. The episodes lack variety. Each takes place on its own set, lasts about the same time, and ends with a discreetly ellipsed, implied love scene. Vadim's paramour Jane Fonda is the only actress to flirt with nudity. Catherine Spaak comes off as intelligent, Karina as kittenish and Benoît as spirited. Francine Bergé's slightly bored actress mirrors our feelings about the proceedings; Vadim just doesn't have much of a sense of humor. When in need of a visual gag to cap a sex scene in his Pretty Maids All In a Row, the best he came up with were rows of lawn sprinklers turning on.

DVD Talk [Stuart Galbraith IV]


The New York Times (Eugene Archer)



France  ltaly  (98 mi)  1966  ‘Scope


Roger Ebert, Chicago Sun-Times

Roger Vadim's "The Game Is Over" is a tedious and ridiculous film of great physical beauty, directed with Vadim's unfailing bad taste and photographed by Claude Renoir with breathtaking virtuosity.

In type, it is not unlike the early vehicles in which Vadim starred his former wife, Brigitte Bardot. Indeed, one must look again in many scenes to be sure current wife Jane Fonda is not a post-adolescent reincarnation of France's favorite sexless symbol.

The plot is still another retelling of the "Phaedra" myth, lifted this time from Emile Zola. One wishes "Electra" would come back into style and give everyone a change of pace. But, no, we must watch again as a young woman (Miss Fonda) marries an older man and then falls in love with his son (Peter McEnery).

Her husband, ably played by Michael Piccoli, wouldn't dream of stooping to violence to keep his wife. Instead, in the approved 19th Century French manner, he explains that all of her money is invested in his business. In Euripides' play, the woman commits suicide and the son dies for his sins, but Vadim has a more painful treat in store for us.

Miss Fonda flies off to Geneva for a divorce. The son is engaged, in her absence, to a banker's daughter in order to save his father's business. On her return, Miss Fonda fails to commit suicide (in a notable flip of the old cliché, we see her surfacing in a pond for once instead of jumping in). But she does go mad, of course. That's what always happens to girls like that.

Vadim, as usual, has no feeling for the border between the bizarre and the merely ridiculous. One gradually comes to suspect that he will do anything on the screen. While Euripides spins in his grave, we are given such lines as: "It's all right to deceive my father while he's here, but I don't want to take advantage of his absence. It's immoral." And, honest, "Can you imagine what he'd say if he caught us -- good Lord, my wife and my best son."

Renoir's photography saves more than one scene. There are stunning shots as the lovers drive through the countryside; Miss Fonda's not extraordinary beauty is made the most of, and boudoir passages show unmistakable signs of Vadim's vulgarity bested by Renoir's taste. (Mark Zimmer)


Movie House Commentary  Johnny Web (Christopher Null)


Cleveland Press (Tony Mastroianni)


The New York Times (Bosley Crowther)


SPIRITS OF THE DEAD (Histoires extraordinaires)

aka:  Tales of Mystery and Imagination

Vadim segment:  Metzengerstein

France  Italy  (121 mi)  1968  omnibus film in 3 segments, co-directors:  Federico Fellini and Louis Malle


Time Out

A compendium of three Poe stories. Vadim's (Metzengerstein) carries with it an aura of perversity, due not so much to the fetishistic clothes and decor as to the casting of Jane Fonda and brother Peter as the lovers. With his death, she resorts to a totem black stallion as a substitute, and the film itself falls apart. Malle's piece (William Wilson), a not particularly riveting variation on the Doppelgänger theme, has Alain Delon 1 (looking slightly bewildered) being chased by Alain Delon 2 (looking even more bewildered). Bardot puts in an appearance, looking odd in a black wig. Meticulously done, but not much to do with Poe; only Fellini (Toby Dammit) really manages to make much of his source. Stamp comes to Rome as the actor chosen to play Christ in the first Catholic Western (a cross between Dreyer and Pasolini, with a touch of Ford). He plays a man at the end of his tether, and as his obsessions take over, so do Fellini's. In many ways the sequence foreshadows Roma. It's overdone and strained, but worthwhile for Stamp's curious performance. communes with Spirits of the Dead  Christopher Null


A rare '60s oddity, Spirits of the Dead takes a weird premise and makes it even weirder. How weird? Try classic Edgar Allen Poe stories given a 1960s spin -- one that lambasts the whole free love/no morals movement the way that only the Frenchies could do. And stars some of the biggest stars of the era -- Fonda! Bardot! Delon! -- and is told in three short pieces, courtesy of three big-time directors -- Fellini! Malle! Vadim!

Roger Vadim takes his Barbarella star Jane Fonda through a very loose interpretation of "Metzengerstein," with Fonda as an aristocrat bored of the constant orgies and swift executions of her enemies. She ends up falling for her cousin, but when he rejects her, she burns down his stable, taking him along with it. Strangely, the cousin ends up possessing the spirit of a horse, which the countess ends up fascinated with anew. It's the weakest of the three shorts, but it's worth seeing if for no other reason than to see Barbarella trot out her French. (To be honest, that might be the only reason -- the story just doesn't make much of an impact.)

Louis Malle heads the second segment, a version of "William Wilson," wherein a barbaric Alain Delon finds himself chased by an alternate version of himself throughout his life, his own conscience casting judgment upon him. And for good reason -- Delon's Wilson is incorrigible, tormenting classmates with live rats as a youth, nearly performing an autopsy on a live and buxom patient, and cheating at cards so he can get revenge on a beautiful card sharp (Brigitte Bardot). The story works well as a parable about how the evil that men do always catches up with them in the end, and Malle tells it with flair -- low-budget '60s flair, but flair nonetheless.

The final act of the triptych is pure Fellini as only Fellini can be. A revision of "Never Bet the Devil Your Head," his Toby Dammit (Terence Stamp) is a famous modern-day actor, as well as a drunk and a soulless libertine. Everything about Fellini's mini-universe is sketchy, from a bizarre awards show ("The Golden She-Wolf Awards") to the little redhead he sees in his frequent visions... whom he sees as Satan, naturally. Reminiscent of 8 1/2 and La Dolce Vita, Fellini's segment is both beautiful and surreal, with Dammit's self-destruction leading us inexorably toward a foregone conclusion.

Spirits of the Dead is something of a historical anomaly. In a year when films like The Graduate told us that, hey, anything goes, Spirits of the Dead says that it doesn't. I'm not sure I would have expected this from the directors of Barbarella, 8 1/2, and Pretty Baby -- none of which is exactly known for moral restraint -- but hey, we are defined by our contradictions, no?


Apollo Movie Guide [Scott Weinberg]

To say that motion pictures have not been kind to the legacy of Edgar Allan Poe is quite an understatement. More than 100 movies have been based on (or more often than not, “inspired by”) the tortured writer’s tale of crime and the macabre, but very few of these adaptations are even worthy of searching out. Roger Corman managed to produce a few entertaining variations on Poe’s more popular stories, but it’s pretty alarming that this legendary author’s finest ‘modernization’ came courtesy of The Simpson’s superlative version of “The Raven”.

While Spirits of the Dead doesn’t do much justice to Poe’s source material, fans of bizarre French cinema should have a pretty good time. This anthology contains segments directed by three well-known European filmmakers (Roger Vadim, Louis Malle and Federico Fellini) and, as is often the case with anthology movies, the result is a mixed bag.

Vadim’s ‘Metzengerstein’ is loosely based on Poe’s tale of the same name, and it features a young Jane Fonda (Vadim’s then-wife who would also appear in his Barbarella) as a decadent and cruel aristocrat who delights in the suffering and discomfort of her various contemporaries and servants. The beautiful countess oversees some surprisingly downcast orgies and behaves like an insufferable bitch before surprisingly falling in love with her cousin. When he dismisses her advances, the countess exacts a cruel revenge that contains some decidedly ironic results.

Louis Malle (Atlantic City) is behind episode two, which is called ‘William Wilson.’ Wilson is a cruel soldier who has an affinity for gambling at the card tables. A lifetime of petty cruelty and outright awful behaviour earns him a mysterious hooded visitor – one who bears more than a striking resemblance to himself. Wilson learns the hard way that defeating your own alter ego comes with some nasty repercussions.

The last feature, ‘Toby Dammit,’ is based on Poe’s ‘Never Bet the Devil Your Head’ and it focuses on a drunken and insufferable lout who also happens to be a world-famous actor. Since Fellini brings this tale to us, you can of course expect something truly bizarre. Suffice to say that as Toby appears on an arcane talk show and begins an inner descent into madness, all sorts of wild visual stuff goes on and things end badly.

Unfortunately, Spirits of the Dead is a muddled and altogether bizarre movie. Fans of Poe adaptations and late-sixties French cinema will undoubtedly find more to enjoy than others, but as a whole this one veers between truly odd and painfully dull. The appearance of a few recognizable faces (Fonda, Terence Stamp, Peter Fonda, Brigitte Bardot) offers something of interest, but on the whole, Spirits of the Dead is simply more “weird” than it is “entertaining.”

digitallyOBSESSED! DVD Reviews  Mark Zimmer


Edgar Allan Poe's writings have proven notoriously difficult to adapt for the screen, though not for lack of trying. Part of the problem is that most of his notable works are short stories that cannot fill an entire feature's running time. Here three of the greatest European directors try their hands at a Poe anthology.

In Metzengerstein by Roger Vadim, the baroness Metzengerstein (Jane Fonda) is notoriously sensual and cruel. She has everyone under her thumb, until she meets her cousin, Wilhelm (Peter Fonda). Shortly thereafter, he is killed in a stable fire, trying to rescue a favorite horse. A tapestry in the baroness' home has a black horse mysteriously burned out of it, and then a black stallion makes its appearance, to her utter fascination. Is it a reincarnation of Wilhelm, or something more sinister?

Louis Malle's William Wilson takes the subject of the double. In a framing device set in a confessional, Wilson (Alain Delon) recounts his life of sin and villainy, punctuated by periodic appearances of his exact double, also named William Wilson. In an extended segment, Wilson plays cards with Giuseppina (Brigitte Bardot), a wealthy cigar-smoking woman in a hideous black wig. But the double is not far away....

The least literal transcription is, unsurprisingly, that by Fellini. In Toby Dammit (adapted from Never Bet the Devil Your Head), the title character (Terence Stamp) is a dissolute Shakespearean actor brought to Rome by the promise of a new Ferrari to make a Catholic western. Dammit goes from one bizarre experience to another, ending in a lengthy and wild ride through the Roman environs. But Dammit cannot escape the devil, who appears to him in the form of a little girl with a white ball (Marina Yaru).

Self-consciously arty, the three tales tend to be fairly heavy going. Vadim plays lengthy dialogue sequences with music only; Malle gets bogged down in the confessional scenes and the card game and doesn't develop the relationship between the doubles in a satisfying manner, and of course Fellini's production is his usual freak show. The picture definitely has its moments, however. William Wilson's debauched attempt to dissect a live woman, as well as his vicious caning of Giuseppina are notable, and the image of the devil in Toby Dammit is utterly chilling in its portrayal of the ultimate wickedness in the guise of innocence.

While this is a French-language print, oddly enough the titles are in English (the onscreen title is
Tales of Mystery and Imagination). The content seems to be identical to that of the earlier Image disc, with the exception of the titles and the narration over the closing credits of Poe's Spirits of the Dead by Vincent Price, added for the US release by AIP, which is missing here, but was included on the Image disc English language track. That disc, however, was from a PAL master and thus the running time was abbreviated by over four minutes.


DVD Savant (Glenn Erickson)


Movie Habit (Breck Patty)


DVD Talk (Gil Jawetz)


Spirits of the Dead -  Jeff Stafford


Tales of Mystery and Imagination (1968) aka Spirits of the Dead ...  Richard Scheib from Moria


Q Network Film Desk (James Kendrick)


Communist Vampires  Thomas M. Sopis


DVD Drive-In [Christopher Dietrich]


Spirits of the Dead  John White from 10k bullets  Jeremy Heilman - DVD Review


The Onion A.V. Club [Nathan Rabin]  also reviewing DON JUAN (OR IF DON JUAN WERE A WOMAN) 


The New York Times (Vincent Canby)



France  Italy  (98 mi)  1968  ‘Scope


"Barbarella psychedella, there's a kind of cockle shell about ya."


I read somewhere that he got the idea to do Barbarella because he saw Jane Fonda walking around the house topless. I mean, what a way to brainstorm.
—from Vern’s Review

Time Out

Vadim kicks off his adaptation of Jean-Claude Forest's 'adult' comic strip by stripping Fonda starkers. From there on it's typically vacuous titillation as Barbarella takes off for the mysterious planet Sorgo in 40,000 AD, there to survive attack by perambulating dolls with vampire fangs, receive her sexual initiation from a hairy primitive, fall in love with a blind angel, be whisked off to an alarming Lesbian encounter with the tyrannical Black Queen, etc. But Terry Southern's dialogue occasionally sparkles, and the imaginative designs, as shot by Claude Renoir, look really splendid.

Edinburgh U Film Society [Keith H. Brown]

In the 41st century Barbarella (Jane Fonda) is sent to thwart the schemes of the evil Black Queen. After surviving several kinky encounters, including tantric sex with a blind angel who can no longer fly and an attack by killer dolls with razor-sharp teeth, Barbarella defeats the Black Queen and the galaxy is restored to peace.

If you like camp/kitsch or the thought of a semi-clad Jane Fonda c.1968 then Barbarella is the film for you. If you like meaningful content, stylistic innovation or any of that serious cinema stuff then it isn't (unless, of course, you happen to be interested in constructing a thesis about how the casual sexism of Barbarella maybe isn't really all that harmless deep down when you think about it; something Fonda herself probably got more into a few years later in the wake of "Hanoi Jane", Klute and Tout va Bien). It's not a film that tries to break barriers or provide deep and meaningful commentary on the nature and meaning of life - it's a film which sets out to entertain and does so with considerable panache. What more do you need to know?

How about that Barbarella's director, Roger Vadim, might just be the most important director since 1950 without ever actually making an outstanding film, although he did produce some highly enjoyable films. His Bridget Bardot star-vehicle And God Created Woman (1956) created an atmosphere conducive to low-budget films from young directors in France. So we got the nouvelle vague of Godard, Truffaut etc. And, without them we might never have had the likes of Scorsese and Tarantino in the USA or Wong Kar Wai in Hong Kong etc etc. Perhaps Vadim is the fertiliser director - his shit nurtured the growth of other, better, directors and films. Finally, just in case there's any trivia buff out there who isn't yet aware of it, the 80s pop group Duran Duran derived their name from a robot in Barbarella. What a tribute that must have been!

Movie Magazine International [Moira Sullivan]

The opening minutes of Roger Vadim's all time sci-fi classic "Barbarella" is a showcase for Jane Fonda and what we will always best remember her best gymnastics. Emerging from her space suit she floats weightless in her fur cabin onboard Alpha 7, her visor descending from the bubble like headgear, extremity by extremity while a statue of a Goddess holding the moon stands by. Jane at the time was 31 and looked like a stereotypical wholesome American woman, a bit of an airhead with a mane of strawberry blonde hair, actually a bit dorky. Based on the French banned bestseller comic book by Jean Claude Forest and produced by Dino de Laurentiis Barbarella is also famous for two additions to music history: a captivating sound track by Bob Crewe and Charles Fox performed by "The Glitterhouse" and for being inspirational source to the band Duran Duran in 1978, named after one of the characters of the film, minus a D on the end. In this Europop tale of love and evil, Dianthus (Claude Dauphin), president of earth and rotating premier of the sun system, appears face to face with Barbarella via widescreen satellite to send her off on a mission to find Durand Durand (Milo O'Shea), a 26 year old man with brown eyes who has managed to invent a weapon after centuries of peace on earth. Barbarella is of course 'shocked' at this invention because that means 'war and selfish competition'. As a five-star astronaut, several archaic pieces of weaponry are materialized for her by Dianthus, as she disgruntingly remarks that she now looks like a 'native savage'. During the course of the film she meets Dr. Ping (Marcel Marceau) who survives by eating orchids, a blind angel named Pygar (John Phillip), and an evil queen (Anita Pallenberg) who propositions her, calling her 'Pretty Pretty'. The sci fi technology is all done in a studio that looks like a 60's TV set.

Why did Jane make a film like this? Even she does not know herself. As the retrospective guest of honor at the San Francisco Film Festival in 1994, she was asked 'where was her head'? 'I don't know -- up my armpit, I guess,' Fonda responded. 'We all make mistakes. In my case, I keep getting my nose rubbed them.' The evil city Sogo, the city of night is clearly a reference to Sodom and Gomorra and the film, at least in America was perceived every much as a product from hell. Originally released in 1968 before the establishment of the R rating, it initially got an 'M 'for Mature. The following year it was given and R. All the sex scenes were cut out from the 1977 version to get a PG rating and was called 'Barbarella Queen of the Galaxy'. The video and DVD letterbox edition on the market today has the original M rating. In Europe all of the nudity was there from the first release. As a postnote Drew Barrymore is set for a new Barbarella release in 2004 as producer and actor though not a remake, meaning that although Jane Fonda may have regretted the film there is always one more airhead waiting in the wings be Queen of the Galaxy.

Film - Bright Lights Film Journal  Quickies: Random Short Reviews from Barbarella to Liquid Sky to The Weather Underground, by Gary Morris, July 31, 2003


Film Freak Central   Bill Chambers


The SF, Horror and Fantasy Film Review  Richard Scheib


The Sci-Fi Movie Page  James O’Ehley, including the film’s script


Mutant Reviewers From Hell  Shalen


Eccentric Cinema


DVDTown [John J. Puccio]


Mondo Digital


Monster Hunter


Bill Chambers,


All Movie Guide [Brian J. Dillard]


Vern's review  also reviewing DANGEROUS LIASONS and DON JUAN (OR IF DON JUAN WERE A WOMAN)


The New York Times (Renata Adler)



USA  (91 mi)  1971


Time Out

Somebody's knocking off girls at the high school in this sex-comedy-thriller, which doesn't get far in any of these directions. The sex is an updated equivalent of the kind indulged in by Rock Hudson in innumerable bedroom comedies. The comedy consists largely of Telly Savalas wearing his dark glasses on the top of his bald head, plus a few gags about embarrassing erections. And the thriller aspect derives from a couple of close-ups of Hudson looking dangerously manic. In one shot, the boom microphone hovers in full view for several seconds; an indication of the general sloppiness and pointlessness of Vadim's first American-made feature.  Fernando F. Croce


The Osmonds chirrup over the title, which is tattooed, via zoom, on a coed's ass -- Roger Vadim lines his gals to sing "America the Beautiful" sweetly, a love letter from "an observer's point-of-view." The camera is positioned rigorously for the color of the high-schoolers' panties, a problem for the pubescent hero, John David Carson, nervously virginal and with stubborn erections; his teacher is Angie Dickinson in full bloom, he dashes to the bathroom to relieve his hard-on and finds a corpse sprawled in the next stall. The student body as derived from the sexual revolution and Lord Love a Duck, with Roddy McDowall (here graduated to the Principal's chair) nonplussed by the murder ("We have always kept our academic records so high!"); Telly Savalas sets up investigation on campus while Carson does his best to get seduced by Dickinson, the couple's awkward groping crushes a chocolate duck and the red liquor inside hemorrhages out for quite a stunning defloration gag. John Milton's "Paradise Lost" is posed against Bosch, Molière is imbued with a peace sign, Zabriskie Point's opening is briskly sent up; refined glue is needed to hold Gene Roddenberry's shredding jests together, and Vadim locates it in Rock Hudson's glance of fatigued amusement as the libertine coach. A Bluebeard jock, Hudson declares his "passion of living" to the flames of his living room fireplace (a Chabrolian goof) yet can't tell fucking from killing anymore -- the micro-skirted hippie nymphs pay with their lives for their sexuality, our laughter dissolves with the grimness under Vadim's epicurean spirit. A scalding satire and, all things considered, a remarkably fecund work: The story launched a thousand porno flicks, Carol J. Clover and Heathers benefited mightily from it, De Palma breezed through for Carrie and, in the process, took Dickinson with him. With Keenan Wynn, Barbara Leigh, James Doohan, William Campbell, Susan Tolsky, Gretchen Burrell, Aimée Eccles, and Joy Bang.


Turner Classic Movies   Jeff Stafford

Among the many peculiar assemblages of cast and crew in Hollywood history, Pretty Maids All in a Row (1971) is in a class by itself. A black comedy set in a California high school where someone is murdering female students, the film marked the U.S. film debut of French director Roger Vadim (Barbarella, 1968) with Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry producing and writing the screenplay. Mix in a number of seasoned Hollywood professionals (Rock Hudson, Angie Dickinson, Roddy McDowall, Keenan Wynn) with a hip, younger cast of aspiring actors and starlets. Top it off with a music score by Lalo Schifrin (Mission: Impossible, 1996) and a theme song co-written by Christian music mogul Mike Curb and sung by The Osmonds. And the result is a delicious guilty pleasure for some and a cringe-inducing embarrassment for others. There is no middle ground here unless you choose to view the film as a trained sociologist.

In a sly bit of casting, Rock Hudson plays "Tiger" McDrew, the high school football coach and guidance counselor who enjoys countless private liaisons in his office with selected female students. When the affairs get too serious or threaten to involve his wife, he terminates them abruptly - usually by strangulation. Yet, despite his busy schedule, he still finds time to mentor a few promising students and his current protégé is Ponce (John David Carson), whom he is grooming to be his future vice principal. But first "Tiger" wants to address Ponce's "sexual problem" (priapism, a constant state of erection), a situation soon remedied by the substitute teacher Mrs. Smith (Angie Dickinson). The remainder of Pretty Maids All in a Row follows Ponce's sexual awakening and the ensuing police investigation of the school murders, led by Telly Savalas in his pre-Kojak period.

While neither completely successful as a murder mystery or satire of high school life (George Axelrod's Lord Love a Duck [1966] was much sharper), Pretty Maids All in a Row does work on the level of soft core erotica which is no surprise considering Vadim's expertise in that area. But the chic, high-class decadence and art-house respectability of previous Vadim features such as Les Liaisons dangereuses (1959) and La Ronde (1964) is completely missing here. Instead, Pretty Maids All in a Row is crass, overstated, infantile and enormously entertaining at times for all the wrong reasons. It's as if Vadim is reflecting his own impressions of American society back at us in this sex-obsessed fantasyland where the California sun overwhelms everything, muting all the colors and subtleties of life.

More than anything, Pretty Maids All in a Row espouses the Hugh Hefner Playboy approach to life and is unapologetically sexist in every male-female encounter in the film. When the camera isn't ogling female breasts and buttocks, it's reveling in visual metaphors for sex; Ponce's orgasmic night with Miss Smith cuts to an early dawn shot of dozens of lawn sprinklers erupting in fountains of spray. Angie Dickinson, prior to her TV fame as "Pepper Anderson" on Police Woman (1974-78), has rarely looked sexier than she does here, and she brings a tongue-in-cheek humor to her clichéd and admittedly thankless role as the older woman responsible for Ponce's initiation into manhood. As for the "pretty maids" of the title, none of them are developed as characters but they were never meant to be more than eye candy in their short skirts and braless tops.

In his autobiography, Memoirs of the Devil, Vadim recalled the casting of the students in Pretty Maids All in a Row: "...I had auditioned over two hundred boys and about the same number of girls. Most of the girls who applied were aspiring actresses, though some were students who merely found the whole thing amusing. For a man recovering from lovesickness [Jane Fonda had just divorced Vadim], this succession of young beauties should have been an excellent tonic. It was not unpleasant, of course, but I have never believed in strength in numbers." Not one of the "pretty maids" emerged as a major star but several went on to enjoy minor film careers with several exploitation and cult films on their resumes: Brenda Sykes (Black Gunn [1972], Mandingo [1975]), Margaret Markov (Black Mama, White Mama [1972], The Hot Box [1972]), Joy Bang (Play It Again, Sam [1972],Cisco Pike [1972]), June Fairchild (The Student Body [1976], Up in Smoke [1978]), Aimee Eccles (The Concrete Jungle [1982], Group Marriage [1973]) and Gretchen Burrell, whose main claim to fame was as the one-time girlfriend of country rocker Gram Parsons.

At the time Rock Hudson made Pretty Maids All in a Row, his film career had completely stalled. The multimillion dollar box office bomb Darling Lili with Julie Andrews hadn't helped matters and neither had the Italian-produced war adventure, Hornet's Nest (both 1970). He was just a year away from his successful transition to television with the hit series McMillan & Wife but he was no longer a guaranteed box office draw - Jack Nicholson, Dustin Hoffman and Ryan O'Neal were the rising new stars. Regardless of his circumstances, Hudson gives a surprisingly relaxed, vanity-free performance as "Tiger." The actor was not exactly in prime physical condition anymore - he looks paunchy, slightly haggard and a little on the seedy side - but his appearance fits the moonlighting ladies' man he's playing. Occasionally in close-ups, he displays flashes of something more disturbing and devious just behind the smiling facade. Of course, the in-joke was that Hudson, at the time, was still seen as a romantic leading man and was not yet known for his gay lifestyle except within certain Hollywood circles.

But Rock Hudson wasn't the only one going through a career crisis in 1970. It was a year of major transitions in the film industry and every major studio was desperately struggling to keep up with the rapidly changing audience demographics. After the surprise success of Easy Rider (1969), Five Easy Pieces (1970) and other indie hits, everyone was trying to cater to the "youth market" and MGM was no exception though their shaky financial situation was worse than most (the studio would completely cease production by 1976 and by 1979 MGM was primarily a hotel company). Vadim recalled, "When I started shooting Pretty Maids All in a Row for MGM, there was not a single other film being made in any of the six main Los Angeles studios. It was a strange paradox that the only director working at that time in the legendary stronghold of the cinema was a Frenchman. The vast MGM studio complex was like some western ghost town. Three thousand people were still employed in the offices and in the workshops, but the famous faces that had set the world dreaming were no more than shadows, the machinery continued to turn, but to no purpose, like a train running along the track when the driver is dead...Apart from one or two television series, my film was the only production at the time and had three thousand MGM people working on it...Only in Russia have I seen such a cancerous bureaucracy."

Part of the problem was the outdated assembly line approach to filmmaking that worked so well during the height of the studio system days. Vadim described a perfect example of this during the filming of Pretty Maids All in a Row: "I had to shoot three takes of a boy on his Vespa. In the morning a motorized column consisting of four trucks, the generator set, makeup vans, actors, extras, the producer, the director, costumes and mobile kitchens, plus six or seven production cars, set out from the studio. The drivers' union refused to allow me to drive my own car. I managed to slip away unseen, accompanied by my director of photography, who had become a friend and accomplice. The actor followed on his Vespa. In an hour, with a hand-held camera, we had all the takes I needed. By the time the column arrived the shot was all finished. The studio had been figuring on two whole days of shooting."

Needless to say, Pretty Maids All in a Row didn't save MGM from its downward slide. The film reviews were decidedly mixed; West coast critics tended to be more positive while East coast critics were extremely negative on the whole. Roger Ebert wrote, "One thing you can say about Pretty Maids All in a Row. Rock Hudson sex comedies sure have changed since Pillow Talk...The movie itself is, finally, embarrassing. It's embarrassing because Vadim's personal hang-ups don't fit the nature of his material, and so he tries to bend things." David Thomson in The New Biographical Dictionary of Film provides a more accurate analysis in hindsight calling Pretty Maids All in a Row "a film of disturbing insights in that its central character - an amused Rock Hudson (once all that Universal allowed to the lovelorn) - does not separate his f#cking of campus nymphets from his murder of them. Too unreal to know in bed, these chicks are plastic enough to be disposed of. The sexual idea in Pretty Maids All in a Row has become psychotic, acting out the dismissal of human reality that has always been implied in the method. And yet the film is tritely playful and the succession of postpubic children are gilded by the loving photography of that veteran, Charles Rosher, who once caught the rapture of Janet Gaynor in Sunrise."

If nothing else, Pretty Maids All in a Row is of interest as an evocative snapshot of another time and place, a signpost signaling the end of old Hollywood and announcing the new one. For Vadim, however, it was something more: "I found it a thrilling experience...It was the most enjoyable piece of filmmaking I have ever done in my career."

Scoopy's Movie House reviews Pretty Maids  Johnny Web


Rogue Cinema [Albert Walker]


Cleveland Press (Tony Mastroianni)


Roger Ebert, Chicago Sun-Times



France  (95 mi)  1972


User reviews from imdb Author: pressman from Prague, Czech Republic

I saw Helle in a theatre in Andorra, in 1973, and have been searching for it ever since, wondering why it has remained so obscure. The setting is a village in the High Savoy mountains, providing the film a stunning scenic backdrop. By contrast, the idyllic feel of early 1950s French rural life is torn apart by the reappearance of a returned -- and embittered -- French veteran of Viet Nam. Despair, eroticism, and suicide become the themes pursued by the film, whose impact is powerful. For Americans who thought they alone were scarred by Viet Nam, it is historical tonic.


Don Juan ou Si Don Juan était une femme...

France  Italy  (87 mi)  1973 [Christopher Null]


So what if Don Juan were a woman? I'm not sure if she would behave something like Brigitte Bardot's 1973 rendition of the famed lover, but it's considerably fun to watch her strut her stuff.

In Roger Vadim's interpretation of the Latin lover, Jeanne (Bardot) eats men for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. She takes a married politician and immediately ruins him by having him photographed at one of her orgies. She uses a hapless folk singer for sex and then leaves, prompting him to slice his wrists and bleed to death while strumming his guitar. She even extends her wiles to corrupting women, luring the innocent wife of a grotesquely self-absorbed businessman into the sack, then turning the tables on both members of the couple.

Vadim imbues his film with a balls-out seventies sensibility, all bell bottoms and shag rugs. Bardot, one of the ultimate vamps of world cinema, is at her unmistakable best here, bored with the world around her yet overflowing with wanton lust. Unfortunately, the film never totally gels -- is the point to show us how Jeanne jumps from one encounter to another without any remorse at all? That's what Vadim gives us -- and his ending tries to wrap up her life with a bit of deus ex machina that doesn't satisfy at all.

Still, Don Juan is a rare shocker that turns the table on age-old expectations about gender and morality. There's no surprise ending and little mystery along the way -- just brash sexuality courtesy of one of cinema's most notorious vixens.


User reviews from imdb Author: Adam Bernstein ( from Northwest, USA

Brigitte Bardot stars here in her last film along with Jane Birkin, the other singer who recorded the Serge Gainesbourg hit, "Je t'aime". This film is worth seeing, as we see BB's and Vadim's evolution from "And God Created Woman" to this post-sixties over-the-top comedy-drama.

We get some great nude scenes with Brigitte and Jane, and BB's character Jeanne is someone fed up with men, so she resorts to seduce and destroy tactics. As in "And God Created Woman" she's pretty much playing herself, but with an exaggerated storyline of driving men to ruin, murder, and suicide. The campy ironic humor is there in such scenarios as seducing a priest as well as setting up a fake menage-a-trois to madden a bete homme. Also a scene with Robert Walker Jr. (Charlie X in Star Trek TOS) where the price she asks for making love is no less than his life, which he takes seriously. The ending is a multiple meaning one as BB saves a man who makes her "pay for her sins" (though he's unappreciative). I think the end hits home for Brigitte in real life saying in effect, "look you male-dominated world, you've made my life hell". And it's the last scene she ever did on film. Worth seeing for it's erotic quality (but what BB film isn't), the submarine home, the early '70s fashions, and the camp. (Jeff Ulmer)


The origins of Don Juan date back to a play entitled The Seducer of Seville, written by Spaniard Tirso de Molina in 1630. The story spread throughout 17th Century Europe, and inspired a number of variations, including The Stone Feast, a 1665 play by Moliere, the lengthy Byron poem (pronounced Jew-en), and Mozart's 1787 opera, Don Giovanni. As a film subject, the IMDB lists 57 titles pertaining to the character, and the 1926 Warner Bros. version starring John Barrymore is credited as the very first sound feature film, which used the Vitaphone to play music and sound effects. According to the legend, Don Juan met his match after seducing the daughter of a Commander, whose ghost returned to take him to hell after the lover had slain the father in a duel.

For his 1973 effort, Roger Vadim would cast his ex-wife, and the woman he helped turn into a sex goddess, Brigitte Bardot, in her last starring role, in
Don Juan 1973, released here under its UK title Don Juan (Or If Don Juan Was A Woman). Maurice Ronet (Purple Noon) reunites with Bardot after working with her on Jean Auriel's Les Femmes.

Bardot plays Jeanne, a woman whose satisfaction comes not from seducing men, but from possessing them. Living off her inherited wealth, and residing in a stylish bachelorette pad in a submarine, her conquests are innumerable, but the stakes are getting higher. She appears at a church where her cousin is performing a eulogy. He is not happy to see her, knowing the type of character she possesses. Still, he can't help but be drawn to her confession, especially when she confides she has killed a man. In the sanctity of her abode she begins to unravel the tale, not in a boastful manner, but as a consequence of her obsession for controlling and destroying men.

Her first prey is Pierre (Maurice Ronet), an upstanding and faithful husband and father, and while not adverse to one night stands, is not to be coerced into any kind of emotional attachment. The pursuit is relentless, but the lengths to which she will go to ensnare her victim drive the man to ruin, and when done with her fun, he is brushed aside as yesterday's challenge. Others will follow, each with their own plots for the undoing.

Vadim's talent for exploiting his leading ladies continues here, and though Bardot's titillating though non-explicit performances in earlier productions make way for more nudity in this film, the voyeuristic will be thankful the subtitles are removable, as these moments are rare and short. The look employed here is reminiscent of earlier Vadim works such as
Barbarella, or Radley Metzger's Camille 2000, with similarly eccentric set dressings, and the choice of shooting into mirrors or using abstract reflections in metal, through objects or simply focusing on inanimate objects while the love scenes play off screen. Rack focus, odd angled long shots, and a variety of stylistic effects up the artiness of the film from a straight erotic subject, but also limit the amount of nudity actually seen, with the encounters focused on the set up, then cut away for the main event.

As some have noted, this may have been Bardot's revenge, and a fitting retreat from her film career, with a role reversal that objectifies males, rather than using her as the subject. Despite her sexual appeal to the men in the film, Bardot is no longer the vixen, she is portrayed with the morals and thought patterns of a male, freed of emotional entanglements, her motives are strictly superficial. There is no passion in her characterization, she proceeds in a somber, calculated fashion, with each of moves preconceived to meet her own goals. This comes across as a lack of depth, leaving the viewer with less attachment for her or her fate. The spin on the legend is interesting, and is certainly visually engaging, but the movie falls into a nether region between erotic cinema and art film, and doesn't seem to gel in either. For Bardot fans, this is a more serious and mature portrayal, lacking the jovial innocence of her previous Vadim work. Outside the flirtatious and playful context, even her two brief nude scenes lose their reward value to an extent. Don Juan is entertaining, but its atmosphere is much more downbeat than the comedies that showcased a lustful exuberance in the past—still a must for her fans, but more for completist reasons than its own merit.


Don Juan or If Don Juan Were a Woman  Michael den Boer from 10kbullets


DVD Talk (Gil Jawetz)


DVD ("Fusion3600")


Flipside Movie Emporium [Michael B. Scrutchin]


Q Network Film Desk (James Kendrick)


Teleport City Cinematics


Vern's review  also reviewing DANGEROUS LIASONS and BARBARELLA


The Onion A.V. Club [Nathan Rabin]  also reviewing SPIRITS OF THE DEAD


Vail, Pegi


GRINGO TRAILS                                                    B-                    81

USA  Bolivia  Thailand  Mali  Bhutan  (79 mi)  2013                  Gringo Trails Official Site

Take only memories, leave only footprints.                 Chief Seattle

More than ten years in the making, the film explores the effect of institutionalized tourism in remote regions around the globe, where the tourist mindset, especially when they arrive in droves, alters the natural landscape and turns whatever natural beauty the site offers into a money-making theme park, where instant gratification outweighs long term gains or benefits.  While the director is an American anthropologist who is also Associate Director of the Center for Media, Culture and History at New York University and a Fulbright Scholar, the film exposes a kind of hedonistic behavior that is altering the face of the planet.  Whether one travels on the luxurious high end of the economic scale using Fodor’s or Frommer’s Travel Guide or backpacks on the cheap scouring through The Lonely Planet guide of must see places around the world, tourists are continually looking for a bigger bang for their buck, searching to discover new unexplored worlds.  Using an episodic structure, the director takes us into some of the most remote regions of the world, beginning with the harrowing adventure in 1981 of Israeli backpacker Yossi Ghinsberg in the Bolivian jungle of Rurrenabaque, where he and some friends set out on an authentic jungle experience hiking into the wilds of the rain forest in Madidi National Park, though they had little knowledge of wilderness survival.  Using maps that were nearly unusable, they were unable to track the overflowing riverbanks of the Tuichi River that cut a path through the Bolivian Amazon, causing him to lose contact with his companions, where Yossi was stranded in the jungle for nearly a month before he was rescued by search teams.  While he was fortunate to have been found, where the boat slowed to turn around at the exact same spot where he happened to be, his emaciated body resembled photos of concentration camp survivors.  Writing a book about his experience, Back from Tuichi in 1993, it attracted the interest of similar wilderness seeking tourists, especially from Israel, where they descended into the remote region by the thousands, all searching for that same authentic jungle experience, where people who had lived quietly and peacefully for generations were suddenly called upon to act as tour guides on hastily put together expeditions, where the myth of Yossi Ghinsberg only grew more exaggerated by the retelling of the tale, turning a poor indigenous community into a tourist trap. 


Another British tourist enthralled by LAWRENCE OF ARABIA (1962) and OUT OF AFRICA (1985) was realizing her dream by finally traveling to Timbuktu in Mali, one of the poorest countries on earth, where this once-thriving mythical village on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert exists in a time warp, once one of the thriving cultural centers in Africa, featuring the Sankore Mosque and other scholarly university centers for Islamic study, where literally nothing has changed, as the town is surrounded by sand dunes and the streets covered in sand as well, seemingly preserved for centuries.  While remarking on the beauty of the region, locals had a differing view, claiming nothing could grow in the desert, that life is nearly impossible, making it one of the poorest towns in the world, where the culture has all but disappeared as the population moved elsewhere, so there was nothing beautiful about any of that.  The romantic fantasies suddenly meet the reality, yet the next day they arrange for a camel ride, where each of the tourists is decked out in flowing white robes that resemble Peter O’Toole in the movie, where she’s finally excited by the thrill of adventure, sleeping out under the stars, yet when they return to town the next day it only takes them 5-minutes, as they simply moved them to the other side of an existing sand dune where the town was out of sight.  In another desert on the other side of the world, Salar de Uyuni is the largest salt flat in the world, measuring four thousand square miles, where tourists began gathering in the 1980’s to collect cactus from Incahuasi "island" in the middle of the flats.  Twenty years later, after being listed in various guidebooks, people started arriving in SUV’s to visit Fredo Lazaro Ticoma, the self-professed “first inhabitant,” having built his home on the site which he turned into a tourist museum where he could profit tremendously, creating a spot where crowds of visitors would gather at picnic tables bringing with them large quantities of alcohol, showing little respect for the fragile environment, while leaving behind plenty of garbage for someone else to clean up.  By 2010, tourists had swelled to 300 to 400 per day, where Fredo can be seen serving lunch, as the government now runs the island.  Travel writer Rolf Potts asserts that “since modernity kicked in, displaced middle class people have to look to poor people [for authenticity].”


The most egregious example of beauty turned to ruination started out as an unspoiled paradise, where National Geographic travel editor Costas Christ describes his own unbridled enthusiasm about visiting Ko Pha Ngan Island in Thailand in 1979, taking a ferry down the river in southern Thailand with about a dozen or so other backpackers, and when they disembarked, he was met with a flurry of tourist hawkers, all trying to steer them into their own business, which was exactly the last thing he wanted to experience, so he asked the ferry pilot where he was going?  He was told the next island had no tourists as there was nothing to do there, so he hopped back on and seemingly had the entire island to himself.  After walking a few miles, he came to an overlook of a spectacular beach below known as Haad Rin Beach, where he met another couple living there, so he spent a month with them in what can only be described as idyllic conditions, as this was literally paradise on earth.  Ten years later small bungalows were built along the beach to accommodate the tourist traffic, but by the Millennium New Year’s Eve Full Moon Party in 1999, closer to 15,000 drunken revelers showed up, and by 2010 that number was closer to 50,000, where there were simply no sanitary facilities to accommodate everyone, so human waste and refuse, especially plastic bottles, littered the beach afterwards in what resembled a disaster zone.  In contrast, the breathtaking beauty of Bhutan, nestled at the foot of the Himalayas, opened up to tourists in 1974, adopting a policy of “gross national happiness” rather than gross profit margins, where they charge tourists $250/day, attracting only the most affluent, threatening visitors with expulsion if they don’t comply with their cultural traditions.  This attracts older tourists, retired professors or the economically elite, where a tour group is seen climbing 2500 feet on foot just to get to a desired restaurant.  This two-tiered economic plan, one price for the locals, another for the tourists, brings much needed money into the region in order to properly maintain the natural splendor.  This same policy is implemented at the Chalalan Ecolodge in Bolivia in what’s called eco-tourism, as the tourist money is used to help explain the value of the land and its resources to their indigenous culture while helping to sustain the upkeep and pristine beauty of the region.  Costas Christ observed that while there used to be plenty of empty spaces around the globe that hadn’t been visited, “now it looks like a Jackson Pollard painting.”  While this might be required viewing on all transcontinental flights, reminding prospective tourists that they are “guests” in another country, the film only artificially examines the surface realities, as Vail never digs any deeper to explore the real underlying causes of why tourists tend to be so uniformly disrespectful to the nations that they visit.  Whether it is the economically elite or the more frugal backpacker, both exhibit the same sense of entitlement, where the sole criteria appears to be to have a good time, irrespective of the consequences to others. 


Doc Gringo Trails Argues Why Backpackers Aren't Too ... Diana Clarke from The Village Voice, also seen here:   New York : Gringo Trails - Village Voice 

In the late 1970s, Costas Christ, now an editor at National Geographic Traveler, took a boat down the river in southern Thailand, disembarked, and, when he saw that the villagers were prepared for him, got right back on. Was there anywhere farther away, he asked the pilot? Anywhere more remote? The pilot told him tourists didn't visit the next island because there was nothing to do. Nothing, of course, was what Christ wanted; why Westerners seek it is the subject of American anthropologist Pegi Vail's engaging documentary, Gringo Trails. Like a backpacker on a long trip, Vail hops across continents, stopping in Thailand, Bolivia, Peru, Mali, and elsewhere to interview travelers, experts, and locals on the impact of backpacker culture in fragile environments, both cultural and ecological.

The film suggests that these travelers, often characterized as young, un-wealthy, and adventurous, are more like traditional tourists than they'd care to admit. In 1981, Israeli backpacker Yossi Ghinsberg survived a month lost in the Amazon; after his memoir was published, hordes of young people arrived in Peru, seeking a similarly challenging, transcendent experience. Instead, they eroded the river banks. Travel writer Rolf Potts argues that "since modernity kicked in, displaced middle class people have to look to poor people [for authenticity]." Some poor people have profited tremendously, such as the first inhabitant of an island in Bolivia's salt flats, who owns his home and shares it with pride while trying to protect the fragile environment. But does he have real power? Is ethical travel possible? Why is it desirable? Vail's film earnestly interrogates authenticity even as her camera lingers on a beach without footprints, inviting the viewer to walk.

Slant Magazine [Wes Greene]

An uneven examination of paradise(s) lost, Pegi Vail's Gringo Trails showcases the tourism industry's encroachment on the natural beauty and modest livelihoods in undeveloped areas within countries such as Bolivia and Thailand. Luring worldwide backpackers with the promise of once-in-a-lifetime adventures, small and cash-strapped cultures see the vast financial benefits of hosting intrepid, low-maintenance travelers, which then slowly turn the indigenous societies into caricatures of their former selves in their drive to provide the "authentic experience." Vail is restrained in critiquing tourism's thriving and merciless business, relying on shrewdly spliced archive footage of once-stunning landscapes mutating into virtual theme parks (and doing so with minimal commentary), but this can only go so far before it seems like Vail is just scratching the surface on the issue, as she and her world-traveler/blogger talking heads only engage in mere theorizing rather than genuine inquiry.

The doc's spotty episodic structure causes the film to repeatedly shift focus, and one of the more fascinating products of the backpacking phenomenon that Vail too briefly explores is how a country's tourism industry sells natural danger as a harmless attraction. Using Yossi Ghinsberg's remarkable 1981 survival in the Bolivian jungle after nearly a month as a launching pad, the Bolivian people in that area have turned Ghinsberg's experience into guided tours for thrill-seeking backpackers, disregarding the fact that Ghinsberg was lost and facing death before being rescued. This is echoed later in a bizarre scene featuring a crowd of tourists surrounding an anaconda in a marsh, where everyone attempts to touch the fearsome predator; the creature's notorious image is suddenly subverted when a tour guide subtly warns that the insect repellent on the tourists' skin is toxic to the snake and may kill it if it's touched.

Perhaps the most tragic story told in the film involves the transformation of Ko Pha Ngan's Haad Rin, once a long stretch of virgin beach and now home to Full Moon Parties that suggest a frat boy's Disneyland. Vail counters images of Haad Rin's barely inhabited past with the present ebb and flow of the sea of beer bottles that litter the beach after a party, a juxtaposition that becomes an undeniably powerful indictment of how countries will brazenly sacrifice both heritage and pristine land to serve the touristic needs of the outsider. Though the tourists are presented as nothing more that single-minded party animals (which the film dubiously presents as an exclusively American and European phenomenon), and the native Ko Pha Nganians see this tourism as a financial opportunity, Vail never proposes a resolution or alternative to the issue, which suggests the director is content to rest on a moral high ground with her images. Haad Rin's story encapsulates Vail's increasingly unsatisfying reserve toward her subject matter, and this beautifully edited film somehow addresses a lot, but ultimately says little.

Flick Hunter [Norm McGlashan]

Gringo Trails is a term used in South and Central America for the destinations where foreign tourist normally frequent. Travelers come in three categories, drifters who stumble upon an area alone or possibly with one or two other people and stay for an extended period of time. Backpackers who come in larger groups but are still frugal in their approach and tourists who expect the same standards in foreign countries as at home. The last group are looking for familiar restaurant, bars, shops and services causing construction of these establishments thus changing the authenticity of the location.

The story starts with the tale of Yossi Ghinsberg who heard about a stretch of uncharted Amazon while in Bolivia in 1981 Ghinsberg was looking for the remote, tribal and unusual headed out to explore getting lost in the jungle. He was swept away in one of the worst rainstorm in the history of the area but manage to survive 25 days alone in the jungle near Rurrenabaque before rescue.  He turned his experience into a 1985 book which started a trend of Israelis coming to the area to see if the story was true and try to gain their own taste of the Ghinsberg experience.

Director Pegi Vail presents the development of tourism in many hotspots normally plot into three stages: the initial sprinkling of travellers that discover a spot, which leads to increased popularity amongst backpackers then total saturation.  The narrative touches on the effect on the land, the habitat of the local animals inhabitants. The film also includes antidotal stories from travel book writers, TV hosts and bloggers. Be sure to catch the running gag of backpackers standing around brushing their teeth in the morning sunlight to start their day.

The next point of interest is Salar de Uyuni also in Bolivia, the largest salt desert in the world measuring at 4086 square miles. Inchausai Island first a destination to gather cactus began to see early tourists arrive in the 80's. By 2000 it became a steady destination for small groups of tourist having seen features on Fredo Lazaro Ticoma the first inhabitant in their guidebooks soon after scores of SUV's began to arrived full of travellers creating the usual scene of picnic tables full of visitors, restaurants, information spots, alcohol and garbage. By 2010 the numbers had swelled to 300-400 tourist per day.  Ticoma who used to interact with the early tourist now only serves lunch to the guides as the government runs the island.

The worst example in the piece is Haad Rin Beach on Koh Phangan Island in Thailand. National Geographic staffer Costas Christ tells his story of first going to Koh Phangan Island in 1979 spending a month with a local family at the beach. 10 years later 150 people were on the beach with a small group of bungalows available for accommodation. By 1994 it's a regular traveling stop with tourist from more popular islands coming by for Full Moon parties. New Years eve 1999 saw 15,000 partiers on the beach to welcome in the millennium, a decade later tourists came by express boat and 50,000 revellers were present to mark the start of 2010.

The film includes two examples of locations that followed the right approach. Bhutan opened up to tourism in 1974 but they targeted a specific market.  They looked for older tourist mainly the well to do, retired University professors and Hollywood types who had means had done the party thing in the past therefore more likely to respect their culture and traditions. Tourist are charged $250.00 per day and can be told to leave if they do not respect the country's traditions and rules. The other is Chalalan Lagoon in Bolivia. The guides are well trained explain to tourist what the land, animals and nature means to them, their parents and grandparents generation. They engage in Eco-tourism, Yossi Ghinsberg retuned to Bolivia in 1992 and is working with the group at Chalalan Ecolodge alongside some of the people that were in the search party to save him. He raised money from the U.S. to support their project of community based tourism.

Gringo trails is a fascinating look at modern tourism and the impact of the traveler on the destinations that they visit. It's a unique take as they find as much fault with the locals for not educating the tourists but instead looking to make a quick buck as with the tourist for disrespecting local customs and traditions. A key rule for the host is to set the ground rules early, limit numbers, have a clear plan on what to do with waste and keep a close eye on the effect on wildlife and culture.  A good tip for the traveller when they come across a supposed exotic local with volleyball courts, bars on the beach and restaurant serving western fare is to ask a local what's going on at the island or village next door. Gringo trails is a documentary that I highly recommend.

Gringo Trails - PopMatters  Cynthia Fuchs


'Gringo Trails' Illuminates Our Travel Footprint - Outside Online  Mary Catherine O’Connor


Gringo Trails ~ a documentary by Pegi Vail | Coffee-Stained ...  Oliver from Coffee Stained Journal


Don't go there? Film chronicles destruction of travel - CNN ...  Zoe Li from CNN


Joshua Reviews Pegi Vail's Gringo Trails [Theatrical Review]  Joshua Brunsting


Planet in Focus Review: Gringo Trails | Cinema Axis  Francis McKay


Film Review: Gringo Trails - Film Journal International  Eric Monder


Facets : Cinematheque Schedule: Gringo Trails


Gringo Trails


Film 'Gringo Trails' looks at whether tourism harms ... - Today  Brooke Lefferts interview, September 4, 2014


Filmmakers Explore Tourism's Toll On Our Planet - NBC News  Sandra Guzman interview, September 4, 2014


Who Ruins the World? Travelers? A Chat with "Gringo Trails ...  Adedana Ashebir interview from The Huffington Post, March 18, 2014, a 2-part interview that continues here:


Are Backpackers Destroying the World? Gringo Trails ...  Bret and Mary interview from Green Global Travel, March 1, 2014


Gringo Trails: Is tourism destroying the world? -  Zoe Li interview, January 3, 2014


'Gringo Trails': Film Review - The Hollywood Reporter  Frank Scheck


'Gringo Trails' Examines Tourism's Fallout -  Ben Kenigsberg


Valdivia, Juan Carlos


SOUTHERN DISTRICT                                         C-                    67

Bolivia  (108 mi)  2010


The vulgar crassness of the wealthy bourgeoisie is on full display with this unhappy examination of a socially dysfunctional family that lives inside an immense home surrounded by gardens where off in the distance the Altiplano Bolivian mountains can be seen.  This feels like a wretched version of De Sica’s THE GARDEN OF THE FINZI-CONTINIS (1970), portraying the last vestiges of the aristocracy, like the passing of an era, which in my view can’t come fast enough in this Bolivian film.  The Southern District of La Paz houses the wealthy, where here a family lives inside a glass house protected from the outside world by iron bars on the windows.  Headed by a thoroughly despicable mother who dotes over her children like a mother hen, smothering them with unneeded and unheeded advice, she has three children who couldn’t be more selfishly spoiled, one who has sex round the clock, one who follows her lesbian instincts largely to spite her mother, and the youngest child who talks to an imaginary friend named Spielberg, all of whom emit an air of entitlement even as their lives undergo a downward spiral of financial misfortune, which is barely even acknowledged, as the family is in utter denial about their unthrifty spending habits, where they accumulate so much debt on credit, expecting this to be perfectly acceptable, that they actually blame the merchants when they are unable to continue without actually paying for what they need.  Their lives continue, as before, with little acknowledgement of reality.


Using a French style of long, monotonous dialogue, this film is advanced by unending, mindless chatter, as if this could be a play, as it nearly all takes place inside the confines of the large and enormous rooms of the glass house, where their pretentions, prejudices, and hedonistic lack of self-awarenenss are on full display, where at some point there is a shot with each character set in front of a different glass window of the house helplessly looking out.  As the film attempts to find a rhythm of daily routine where the house becomes a bubble of social protection from the outside world, the mother flirts with her long-time indigenous manservant, a butler who shops, cooks, helps pick out the clothes people wear, while generally taking orders from his flighty and overbearing boss who is simply used to ordering other people around even as her moral authority to do so slowly disappears.  If anyone has seen Gaspar Noé’s ENTER THE VOID (2009), then you will be familiar with this 360 degree overhead shot that hovers above the world below like an out of body experience, which is used all too frequently here, as if to represent the split in reality.  While there are many somewhat theatrical camera shots, and an extremely interesting architectural glass house on display, the stunningly empty dialogue taking place within the family itself is horribly detached not only from the rest of the world but from any audience in the seats, as what they have to say from start to finish is mindlessly boring, alienating any hint of interest with what’s happening onscreen.  I kept hoping some outsider would arrive with an ax and put all of them out of their misery, but it was not to be.  In the end, it doesn’t really matter, as their air of arrogance and racial superiority is so dismissive of others that it ends up being the film’s undoing, as many found dozing off preferable to staying awake for this snoozer.   

User reviews  from imdb Author: Chris Murphy from United Kingdom

I saw this film on the last day of the Berlinale and it's seduced me right away. The room by room 360 degree rotating camera scenes did remind me slightly uncomfortably of estate agent guides however the film deserves a lot of credit for its subtlety and restraint. The characters are entirely realistic and multi-dimensional, a rarity in films dealing with class and race. In particular the exchanges between mother and daughter for me exemplified the balance and impartiality of the film.

I would thoroughly recommend this whether you are looking for an examination of class, race and family or just wish for a couple of hours of stunning scenery, endearing characters and beautiful music.

Movies Kick Ass [Jose Solís]

Set in an upper class zone of the Bolivian capital, Southern District takes us inside the house of a family as they go through their daily lives.

Carola (del Castillo), the mother and head of the house, lives with her children Patricio (Koria), Bernarda (Vargas) and Andrés (Fernández).

They also share the house with Wilson (Loayza) the butler, who has become a conflicting father figure of sorts and Marcelina (Condori) the maid.

We see as Carola deals with her daughter's disdain for her social class, Patricio's overpowering sex drive (his girlfriend is played by Luisa de Urioste) and little Andrés' fantastical existence.

Within their problems we encounter a microcosms of what Bolivia has become, as social classes shift and indigenous people begin to regain the place they have been denied for ages (notable mostly with the complicated relationship between Wilson and Carola who have trouble dividing the lines between service and family).

If at first glance the plot sounds familiar, the director gives it a new perspective relying on a camera formalism that might recall Godard and Antonioni.

Valdivia takes this soap opera concept and transforms it into a fascinating study of concealment and alienation

Aided by cinematographer Paul de Lumen, the director comes up with a visual plan during which the camera never leaves the family house.

Every scene is composed of long shots, dollies and crane shots that move around the sets, sometimes in complete disregard of the characters (which leaves us with beheaded actors, dialogues heard behind closed doors and a restless mobility that both explores and seeks escape).

The director, who has worked in Mexican soap operas, has no trouble creating dramatic tension in the obvious set up of family quarrels and confrontations but Southern District's brilliance lies in its reevaluation of the familiar.

The film's key scene might be one where Patricio wants to tape a sexual encounter he has with his girlfriend. At her reluctance he tries to ease her into it by telling her to imagine "there's two people", one who makes love to her and the other who films it.

Valdivia's camera works in the same way as it moves throughout the house caressing the mementos and characters, while it tries to absorb all the information it can to help us understand, if not empathize, with these people's superficial existence.

During one chilling moment the camera shows us how all the characters, except Andrés, stand inside the house looking out behind clear glass windows.

We are instantly reminded of an earlier moment where we saw a bunch of bottled butterflies in Andrés' room.

Valdivia gives us the idea that he's exploring autobiographical territory, if not directly at least in ways of inspiration, particularly with Andrés.

The little boy who wants to fly away (literally with a pair of wings he built) and figuratively as he dreams of becoming a filmmaker and discusses this with his imaginary friend appropriately called Spielberg (the nods to E.T.: The Extra-terrestrial and other Spielbergian themes speak for themselves).

Andrés is the only family member who at one point leaves the house-learning about a social reality he practically ignored-and as such we wonder if Valdivia is perhaps suggesting that art is the most efficient way to escape the harshness of reality.

The Hollywood Reporter review James Greenberg at Sundance

The crumbling of the aristocracy in his native Bolivia is the subject of writer/director Juan Carlos Valdivia's entrancing "Southern District." Stylistically innovative, the film builds on the details of daily life to compose its portrait of a society in flux. Experimental form will prove challenging for a conventional audience, but the film should be welcome on the festival circuit and arty outlets.

Nuances of the Bolivian culture may be lost on American moviegoers, but the larger concerns are universal. Valdivia doesn't venture outside of the upper crust palatial home in La Paz. The story is self-contained, just like the people it's about, but the way it's told is like a precisely designed mathematical equation. Aided greatly by cinematographer Paul de Lumen, Valdivia sets up his shots so the cameras are constantly in motion, circling the characters living in their bubble of privilege. Strategically placed mirrors and reflective surfaces all over the house empathize how self-absorbed the people in this world are.

At the top of the food chain is Carola (Ninon Del Castillo), the matriarch of the family. Orbiting around her are her libidinous son Patricio (Juan Pablo Koria), rebellious daughter Bernarda (Mariana Vargas) and young son (Nicolas Fernandez). As a counterpoint, also living in villa are two Aymara Indians, Wilson (Pascual Loayza), the butler, chef and housekeeper, and Marcelina (Viviana Condori), the gardener.

The once-grand and now threadbare house with its lush grounds, designed by artist Perez Alcala and outfitted by production designer Joachin Sanchez, also plays an important role in this domestic drama. Day by day, the viewer gets to live with these people as they complacently hold on to their fading glory. Patricio seems to have sex around the clock with his gorgeous girlfriend (Luisa De Urioste) while Bernarda has a lesbian fling with her schoolmate (Glenda Rodriguez). Their younger brother Andres, who is dark-haired and almost seems to be from another family, escapes to the tiled roof of the house where he talks to his imaginary friend named Spielberg.

But it's Carola who rules the roost with a stern will and often-foul temper as she exerts her power on those around her. Going about her business as if nothing has changed, she refuses to acknowledge her growing debt as her circle of influence closes in on her. Interestingly, her ex-husband doesn't make an appearance and the only man in the house is the servant Wilson, who plays an intricate role in their lives but doesn't figure in the social strata.

The characters are neither likable nor totally evil, and Valdivia displays both compassion and contempt for a bourgeois society he seems to know intimately. None of these people are inherently interesting but they become interesting largely by spending so much time in close quarters with them. Not much happens, but as outsiders the audience gets to see the slow decline of a privileged way of life, something these people can't see for themselves.

What makes the film unusual and sometimes fascinating, despite its glacial pace, in the specificity of time and place Valdivia creates. The director and his team have managed to get inside the very fabric of lives as they are unraveling.

CIFF 2010: Southern District (Zona Sur, 2009)  Marilyn Ferdinand from Ferdy on Films


Variety (Robert Koehler) review


Valentino, Rudolph – actor


BFI | Sight & Sound | Embezzler Of Hearts  David Robinson from Sight and Sound, June 2004

In this celebrity-driven time, actors are the aspect of film-making that gets the obvious attention. But their craft remains mysterious and their cultural input is rarely taken seriously. Sight & Sound wants to change that. In this new series we ask writers to respond to actors, not only as icons of their age, but also in terms of their expertise, their physical presence and their importance to the films of their day. We begin with David Robinson on the ultimate star, Rudolph Valentino.

He was born on 6 May 1895 at Castellaneta, near Taranto, beneath the heel of Italy. In later years publicists would boast that he was baptised Rodolpho Alfonzo Rafaelo Pierre Filibert di Valentina d'Antonguollo Guglielmi - which is unlikely, though the 'Pierre Filibert' is a reminder that his mother Maria Berta Gabriella Barbin Guglielmi was probably of French origin. His father Giovanni was the village vet, and supported the family in comparative comfort until his death in 1906. Rodolpho was the third of four children: his elder sister Beatrice died in infancy; his elder brother Alberto and you-nger sister Maria kept contact with him throughout his years of success. The young Rodolpho seems to have been a minor delinquent, and records of his schooling are doubtful, though his claims of having attended an agricultural college are probably true, if only because so improbable.

On 9 December 1913 Rodolpho set out for New York on the S.S. Cleveland. Arriving penniless, he was glad to accept the hospitality of Castellenatans who had preceded him to the New York ghettos until he found work as a gardener on grand estates - which probably gave him the opportunity to observe, envy and emulate the rich and elegant. Meanwhile, he worked on his innate dancing skills, mastering the crazes of the day - the maxixe, the cakewalk and above all the American and Continental tangos. The handsome, charming and graceful boy easily found work as a taxi dancer in the 'cabarets' that flourished in New York. Almost certainly additional service as a gigolo would have been demanded. He quickly made it to the fashionable Maxim, where he was able to earn $100, with handsome tips, when he pleased the ladies.

Probably humiliated by this rental status, he accepted a considerable cut in salary to replace Clifton Webb as partner to the exhibition dancer Bonnie Glass. He moved on to partner Joan Sawyer, but soon became involved in a complex sex scandal involving millionaire Jack de Saulles, his wife Blanca, the actress Mae Murray and Joan Sawyer herself. Rodolpho was a divorce witness for Blanca, which abruptly ended his partnership with Sawyer. Soon afterwards Rodolpho himself was arrested and gaoled. When he became famous Metro arranged for the police records to evaporate, so the details of the case are unknown, though they seem to have involved blackmail and extortion. Soon afterwards Blanca de Saulles shot her estranged husband dead; with his vulnerable immigrant status, Rodolpho decided it was best to leave town before her trial.

Go west, young man

He got a part in the chorus of the touring musical The Masked Model and when that collapsed found a three-week job in the chorus of Nobody Home, playing in San Francisco. The Seven Little Foys were appearing in vaudeville, and 20-year-old Bryan Foy (later to become a prominent film producer and 'Keeper of the B's') took a fancy to Rodolpho, convinced him to try his luck in Los Angeles, and put him up in his apartment on 6th Street, near the Elks Club.

For a year or so he lived from hand to mouth, working as a dancer and occasional mechanic and endeavouring to break into movies, starting with an unbilled role as a dancer in Alimony in late 1917. Over the next two years he appeared in a dozen or so films, sometimes unbilled, otherwise getting secondary roles in minor pictures or bit parts in bigger productions. His name was rarely spelled the same way twice on the credits: he was M. Roldolpho De Valentina, Rudolph Volantina, Rudolph Valentine. Only on two films at the end of 1920 does his screen name appear in more or less its definitive form of Rudolph Valentino (though there remained uncertainty about the 'ph').

It has generally been stated that he was frustrated at being typecast as Latin heavies and co-respondents, but in fact he had his fair share of characters with good American names like Jimmie and Maurice and played sympathetic Italians (Prince Angelo in Passion's Playground, 1920) as well as the neurotic (Juliantimo in Once to Every Woman, 1920) and plain nasty (Jose Dalmarez in Stolen Moments, 1920). The last role of 1920, as a crook called Jimmie Klingsby (and still billed as Rudolph DeValentino), was in the aptly titled The Wonderful Chance.

Having paid Vicente Blasco Ibáñez $20,000 advance against 10 per cent of the eventual gross for the film rights to his best-selling epic novel The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, Metro was regretting it, as war films plummeted in public favour. Nevertheless, Metro's star writer June Mathis produced a clever adaptation, suggested Rex Ingram as director and proposed the unknown Rudolph Valentino for the leading male role of Julio Desnoyers. Mathis seems never to have met Valentino, but to have been impressed by his cameo role in 1919's Eyes of Youth. Metro accepted, confident that the film was guaranteed by its female star, Ingram's wife Alice Terry. Almost as soon as shooting began, and definitively after shooting the extended tango scene, Ingram recognised the singular magnetism of his new actor. Julio's role was progressively filled out - and when the film opened in 1921, the public saw only Valentino. Myth and star alike were born overnight.

Erotic and exotic

Valentino is the perfect screen actor. He moves with extraordinary grace and skilfully adapts his elegant mime to the age or mood of his character. With his fine skin and slicked-back hair, he has a commanding facial beauty that transcends a misshapen bruiser's ear and a scar on his right cheek (which can even serve as a beauty spot). He seems to absorb himself completely into every character, though he always found a costume helped: he preferred not to play contemporary roles, and even when he did usually sought to introduce some fantasy sequence that permitted him to retreat to a distant and exotic place or era. His playing appears exceptionally restrained for the time, and at the same time acutely expressive. His clinical myopia may have contributed to the depth of his melancholy eyes, under eyebrows often quizzically drawn together. Although the intensity of his passions is rarely compromised by humour or cynicism, he nevertheless had an elegant style in light comedy, seen at its best in Monsieur Beaucaire (1924) and The Eagle (1925).

From the moment of his first entrance in Four Horsemen, hijacking his partner for the tango, he brought a new eroticism to American cinema. As Life said, for women newly emancipated by the Great War, he was "the symbol of everything wild and wonderful and illicit in nature". Beside him, his American predecessors and contemporaries were domestic dull-pots, while Douglas Fairbanks, though dedicated in other ways to glorifying the male physique, seemed always to be doing all those things recommended to adolescent boys to take their minds off sex. Valentino's erotic play ranged from the exquisitely gentle to the no less exquisitely brutal. He was attentive, considerate - and impetuous. His lips just brushed the fingers of a married woman's hand, or kissed the palm (a trick taught him by Elinor Glyn when he was making 1922's Beyond the Rocks) of one who might be more attainable. He would seize his partner, bend her backwards dangerously, then tenderly arrest the movement to plant a kiss. He was the Sheik and the Great Lover.

The heterosexual American was inevitably uneasy; Dick Dorgan spoke for many when he famously wrote in Photoplay: "I hate Valentino! All men hate Valentino. I hate his oriental optics; I hate his classic nose; I hate his Roman face; I hate his smile; I hate his glistening teeth; I hate his patent leather hair; I hate his Svengali glare; I hate him because he dances too well; I hate him because he's a slicker; I hate him because he's the great lover of the screen; I hate him because he's an embezzler of hearts; I hate him because he's too apt in the art of osculation; I hate him because he's leading man for Gloria Swanson; I hate him because he's too good-looking." Just the same, screen lovers - and not just Valentino's Latin rivals like Ramon Novarro and Gilbert Roland - changed their ways with women after Valentino.

Valentino's private sexual life is enigmatic, but not irrelevant to the on-screen erotic charisma that still endures. Everyone who met him emphasises his boyish, unaffected charm and sincerity; and there's a good deal of evidence that he cherished an Italian bourgeois ideal of a well-ordered home and a dutiful wife to supervise it. Yet in Hollywood he seemed to be drawn into a sexual maelstrom and to be dominated throughout his career by strong women, starting with Mathis. The Russian-born stage star Alla Nazimova snubbed him in 1919 when someone attempted to introduce the then-unknown young man in a restaurant. It seemed almost unconscious revenge when he immediately married Nazimova's most recent lover Jean Acker (herself irked, it seems, by Nazimova's dallyings with Dorothy Arzner, the editor on her latest film). Acker instantly regretted her error, locked the door of the bridal suite and went back to another girlfriend. With astonishing naivety, Valentino seems to have continued to plead for her return.

Nazimova changed her attitude after Valentino's success in Four Horsemen and persuaded him to play Armand to her Camille. The production was dominated by another of Nazimova's lovers, Natacha Rambova (in reality Winifred Shaughnessy, the stepdaughter of cosmetics tycoon Richard Hudnut). Valentino was bewitched by this forceful, pretentiously high-brow young beauty - and married her. When shortly afterwards he was charged with bigamy (his divorce from Acker was not yet legally concluded) the couple had no difficulty in establishing there had been no consummation, while Rambova's biography of Valentino - admittedly largely devoted to communications from beyond the grave - persistently refers to his "childlike" qualities and never hints at a mutual erotic attraction.

Outside these two marriages, Valentino was untouched by the usual Hollywood scandal machine, with no suggestion of sexual affairs with any other women or men - though he openly enjoyed the companionship of his own sex, with (not surprisingly) a number of homosexuals among his most faithful chums.

Art and industry

Rambova's pretentions and ambitions were to have a seriously adverse effect on Valentino's career. After Four Horsemen he made three more films for Metro: Camille (1921); Uncharted Seas (1921), a melodrama set in the Arctic; and The Conquering Power (1921), directed by Rex Ingram, who clearly resen-ted being eclipsed by Valentino and was determined to cut him down to size. When Metro refused to raise his salary despite the huge profits of Four Horsemen Valentino was happy to be part of a package that Mathis sold to Famous Players-Paramount, which involved starring Valentino in The Sheik (1921) at a considerably larger salary than he had earned at Metro. Edith Maude Hull's 1919 novel had garnered a notoriety that sold millions of copies; to have read this slyly pornographic tale was the mark of the New Woman. It relates how a liberated young aristocratic lady is abducted in the desert by a handsome sheik. Borne off to his tent, she yields - but happily discovers he is really an English nobleman in mufti. The story has everything - sin, miscegenation and a last-minute racial corrective.

With The Sheik Valentino's fame and popularity soared; but Rambova thought such stuff below her husband's dignity and from then on made more and more difficulties between Valentino and Famous Players, encouraging him to be increasingly demanding about his projects and their visual qualities (with Rambova, naturally, the preferred designer and artistic adviser). There were some good films nevertheless - a finely played contemporary role in Moran of the Lady Letty (1922) and a return to Ibáñez with Fred Niblo's admirable Blood and Sand (1922). Immediately before this last film, and while relations with the studio were still comparatively cordial, Sam Wood directed Valentino and Gloria Swanson in Beyond the Rocks, from Elinor Glyn's 1906 novel. The film was long lost, but has just been rediscovered by the Nederlands Filmmuseum, which is in the process of restoring it. Swanson herself always longed, vainly, to see it again, since she had such happy memories of its making. She was 25, Valentino was 27, and she found him modest, endearing and fun; the two youngsters would run off for tennis games together. Valentino plays the English Lord Bracondale, who saves the life of the beautiful Theodora (Swanson), the young wife of an elderly millionaire, when she slips off an Alpine precipice. They fall in love, with predictable complications that are eventually resolved when the millionaire husband is slain by bandits in Arabia. Madame Glyn, the author of this farrago, was on the set to offer tips on the finer points of romantic love-making, and her hand is also evident in an article signed by Valentino in the March 1922 issue of Photoplay.

Goaded by Rambova, Valentino broke completely with the studio after the decorative but unbearably tedious The Young Rajah (1922), alleging Famous Players' tyranny over his artistic creation. For a year and a half he survived by doing exhibition dances as a cosmetics commercial. Valentino was still a valuable property, however, and in 1924 there was a reconciliation with the studio, which knuckled under to most of his demands. Monsieur Beaucaire, made at Paramount's New York studios, is a touch weighed down by Rambova's design and A Sainted Devil (1924) and Cobra (1925) are among his least successful films. Famous Players was clearly not too disappointed when it finally parted with what one executive called "the double hernia".

Recruited to United Artists by Joseph Schenck (or rather coerced - Schenck had providentially covered some of the huge debts incurred by Valentino's extravagance), Valentino was to make only two more films. The Eagle, directed by Clarence Brown, remains one of his most sophisticated; he plays a young Russian officer slyly evading the attentions of the lustful Catherine the Great (Louise Dresser). Finally he returned to the lurid world of Edith Maude Hull for The Son of the Sheik (1926). It is old tosh, but Valentino is at his best, finely differentiating his double roles, his mime beautifully characterising the old Sheik gracefully yielding to time.

Valentino went east for the premiere. He was unhappy. He and Natacha, who was forbidden by the contract with Schenck from even entering the studio, had quietly separated. He had been cut by nasty press attacks on his virility - despite his increasing insistence on posing with boxers and athletes and on showing off his body (not always easy, as from early days he had a constant weight problem). Most surprising was the still from The Young Rajah in which his knitted swimming trunks reveal a display of manliness at which even contemporary newspapers might jib. After his death the "powder-puff" jibes were largely blamed for his distress, but H.L. Mencken, who interviewed him at the time, felt it was the experience of The Son of the Sheik which had knocked him so low. He had risen from nothing, and had striven to be an artist, only to find that what he had done was worthless.

A new star in heaven

On 15 August 1926 Valentino was rushed into the Polyclinic Hospital New York and operated on for a gastric ulcer and ruptured appendix. On 23 August he died, setting off a mass display of necrophilia such as had never been seen before. Vast crowds (most of them, it was noted, under 35, with some of the men in gaucho costume) converged on Campbell's Funeral Church on Broadway and 66th Street. Three hundred and fifty policemen and a horde of private detectives attempted to control them, but there were at least a hundred casualties and Campbells opened a temporary clinic. For three days people - more in carnival mood than in mourning - filed past the bier at the rate of 9,000 per hour. United Artists, with its big investment in The Son of the Sheik at stake, did not discourage the spectacle. Nor did Paramount, anxious to promote Pola Negri's next film Hotel Imperial, raise any objection when the diva announced that she and Valentino had been engaged, and embarked on a much publicised cross-continental pilgrimage, weeping, swooning, screaming, giving press conferences and doing re-takes for the news camera by turns. A song 'There's a New Star in Heaven Tonight' was rushed out and proved a best-seller.

After a memorial service in the Church of St Malchy the body was taken west by train, stopping for further memorial services at Chicago. Finally, in Hollywood, the funeral took place in the Church of the Good Shepherd, and the double bronze coffin was laid to rest in June Mathis' crypt in the Hollywood cemetery as an aeroplane dropped a hail of blossoms to cover the ground below.

Valentino died at a time of revolution in communications technology. The furore over his last illness, death and lying-in-state was to a large part generated by the new medium of radio. The image of his corpse was the first press picture to be transmitted across the world by wireless. Seventeen days before his death Warner Bros. had premiered its first Vitaphone programme in New York: sound films had arrived.

Valentino would certainly have survived the revolution. Some broadcasts and rather amateur but sweetly engaging recordings of 'The Kashmiri Love Song' and 'El relicario' had shown he had a pleasant voice. He had mastered perfect English, with an exotic accent which was said to sound more French than Italian.

Valentino would have survived the revolution - but would the legend? "We had faces then. We didn't need to talk," said Norma Desmond. These mythical figures - Chaplin's tramp, Fairbanks' Thief, the Lillian Gish of Broken Blossoms, Theda Bara, Negri, Swanson, Musidora and Mozhukhin - existed outside ordinary reality, larger far than life, and not chained to nationality by common speech. Valentino's exotic contemporaries Nazimova and Ramon Novarro were to end their careers as ethnic character players; Negri's last role was in Disney's The Moon-Spinners (1964). Rudolph Valentino lived, died, and remains a legend.   

Bright Sights: Recent DVDs - Bright Lights Film Journal  The Valentino Collection, by Gordon Thomas from Bright Lights Film Journal, November 1, 2007


Critic's Choice: New DVD's  BEYOND THE ROCKS, by Dave Kehr from The New York Times

Vallée, Jean-Marc


Canada  (127 mi)  2005


By John Anderson  C.R.A.Z.Y. from Cinema Scope (link lost)

The various successes of C.R.A.Z.Y.—a Québecois smash that deals with real things and attracts people who don’t ordinarily go to movies (something essential for a long shelf life)—put it in a heavyweight classification somewhere between Titanic (1997) and Mambo Italiano (2003). It’s about family, to which everyone can relate. And if you don’t see the outcome looming, like an iceberg with “ICEBERG” written on its side, you might have been surprised when the ship sank, too.

But it’s sweet. It’s redemptive. It made $6 million in Québec alone and is the Canadian nominee for Oscar’s Best Foreign Film. Yes, it has English subtitles for the non-Québec audiences, ordinarily the kiss of death in that large movie market south of Winnipeg , but it could overcome. It makes one feel good about one’s own open-mindedness. It wants to say that blood is thicker than water, when it’s really thicker than 90-weight oil and is oftentimes just as appealing. The soundtrack is a drive down Memory Lane for the middle-aged, and is less subtle than a John Williams score. And the movie practices a slick form of sleight of hand.

The wild success of a predictably popular movie like C.R.A.Z.Y.—and it is predictable, sadly enough—represents not a revisionist past, but a revisionist present. It is made by what has become a tried-and-true technique: take an issue, in this case homophobia, and view it through a prism of, say, 30 years. What do you get? “Oh,” thinks C.R.A.Z.Y.’s audience, “weren’t people ignorant?” When? Today at lunch? Right, you mean way back then. Before we all came to understand each other and live in peace, tolerance, and domestic tranquility.

It’s a standard ruse, one based on sociological cowardice. Tackle a controversy, yes, but place it somewhere safely in history where it can be viewed as if through glass. It’s an approach we’ve seen in dozens of movies over the last dozen years or so, ones as disparate as the recent Disney product The Greatest Game Ever Played—in which cruel class distinctions are treated as some extinct monster, rather than the ethos by which certain governments operate—and Todd Haynes’ Far from Heaven (2002), which, for all its greatness, behaves (yes, OK, ironically) as if racism was something we’d cured, like polio, sometime in the 50s. Ang Lee’s Brokeback Mountain , which I thought was a heartbreaking work, practices the same hoodoo. Imagine if it were not set in the 60s, when gays could be martyred by Wyoming yahoos just for being gay. (Wait a minute: Where was The Laramie Project set?) Presumably, the impossible romance between Lee’s gay lovers, were it to take place now, could have been easily worked out. But given the landscape and circumstance and the Defense of Marriage Act, we’re not so sure.

Not to give Mel Gibson any more credit that he’s not earned already, but what he did in The Passion of the Christ (2004) was take a crucifixion out of a muddled, romanticized, gauzy past and put it in your face as if it were an underdone, badly abused pork chop. What movies like Brokeback Mountain and C.R.A.Z.Y. do is ask us to embrace an issue while keeping it safely at arms’ length.

C.R.A.Z.Y. director Jean-Marc Vallée (who said before a screening at the recent Vancouver International Film Festival that his little film had enjoyed a $600,000 music budget) approaches gayness as if with tongs: nothing sloppy, nothing graphic—nothing, in other words, to put off an audience that might not quite be ready for the messy realities of what is, for the movie’s featured family, a distinctly alternative lifestyle. For Zach (Marc-André Grondin), the fourth of five sons born to the charming, aging, homophobic hipster Gervais (played wonderfully by Michel Côté), bias isn’t some artifact of an ancient civilization, but an ongoing crisis. In one of Vallée’s cuter moments, Zach actually hides in the closet, observing the seemingly hourly heterosexual conquests of his rebellious older brother Ray (Pierre-Luc Brillant). When Zach comes out—literally, not figuratively—he gets a punch in the face. But his sexual emergence is so late in coming, his character so conflicted rather than decidedly queer, that the filmmaker ends up making a big fat sitcom out of a serious social crisis.

Lest we get distracted by all the low-rent domestic comedy, classic rock, and contrived anguish, C.R.A.Z.Y. has some good performances, notably by Côté, even if his character’s homophobia doesn’t quite reconcile with the out-there characteristics that make him so charming, and ultimately so awful. The straight Gervais has some curious fetishes: a penchant for Patsy Cline, for his cool black Cutlass, and for singing along, quite unabashedly, with Charles Aznavour records at the climax of family functions. He is not a Homer Simpson-esque dope; he follows fashion, however badly (Côté’s haircuts are hilarious). He obviously knows what’s going on in the world outside Québec. He is the kind of man who might expect—as Irish mothers once did, vis-à-vis the priesthood— to offer up one son to homosexuality. God knows, with five sons, the odds are that he’d have no choice. But he never understands Zach, and he never really tries.

Just as Côté dominates the cast, his character’s bias dominates the movie’s ethos and, like so much else, this feels forced (as does much else in a movie so dominated by a soundtrack featuring, among others, David Bowie, Pink Floyd, and the Rolling Stones). But let’s face it: does anyone in this movie seem to be related to anyone else? The brothers—the title of the film is an acronym of their names (Christian, Raymond, Antoine, Zachary, and Yvan)—aren’t just a diverse group, with each Central Casting slot occupied (jock, brain, drug addict, homo, acerbic fat loser). They’re from different planets. They don’t look alike. They don’t share any similarities. And although their variety might be a statement about Zach’s right to be who he is (no one else is bothered about who he is), people in families do, in fact, sound alike, walk alike and share an exposure to the same ideas which manifest themselves somehow, if not necessarily in enthusiastic agreement.

But if you’re looking for cinéma vérité, or even plausible fiction filmmaking, you’re not going to be cuckoo for C.R.A.Z.Y. Does it work on any level? Sure, but likely not for people who really care about the issues raised, because the issues raised are used as devices. Why does it take Zach most of the movie to even accept that he’s gay? Because then he can have a heterosexual relationship for most of the movie with the rather less-than-perceptive redhead who loves him. (Honey, anyone that much into Bowie has got issues). She is a bit butch, though. Maybe in C.R.A.Z.I.E.R.?

DALLAS BUYER’S CLUB                                    B                     87

USA  (117 mi)  2013                              Official site


Apparently this story has been lying around for awhile, as in the mid 90’s Dennis Hopper was initially signed on to direct the film with Woody Harrelson as Ron Woodroof, but the money never came together.  While uncredited, which is a bit unfathomable, the origin of the movie comes from a lengthy  newspaper story called Buying Time written by Bill Minutaglio from the Dallas Life Magazine, published August 9, 1992, which can be read in its entirety on Robert Wilonsky’s Pop Culture Blog, For Matthew McConaughey, next up is true-life tale of 'The Dallas ....  The timing of the article was significant as Woodroof died just a few days after the article appeared in print.  Writers Craig Borten and Melisa Wallack are credited with writing the story, but they are actually adapting someone else’s story who should be compensated for their work.   Ron Woodroof (Matthew McConaughey), described by Minutaglio as a man “who cursed like four sailors,” is an enigmatic figure, as he’s your typical redneck Texas homophobe who hated “faggots” throughout his lifetime, as he was likely killed by a bisexual partner having sex with his girlfriend, as both were diagnosed as HIV+ in 1985 at a time when the expression hadn’t even been invented yet, as everyone was still labeled under the single AIDS category, as contracting the disease at that time meant sure death, as there were no medications offered.  Woodroof was a licensed electrical contractor and part-time rodeo rider known for his fearless nature while living a hard life of boozing, smoking, sniffing cocaine, and womanizing. The film leaves out a girlfriend, where she’s replaced by any number of attractive women for hire, where using condoms was exclusively something for kids.  When Woodroof ends up in the hospital for a work-related injury, his white blood cells are nearly non-existent, where doctors can’t even scientifically offer an explanation for why he’s still alive, informing him that he has 30 days remaining to live.  Angry and in denial about being told he has a “faggot’s” disease, he’s even more disappointed to discover there’s no treatment.


Showing amazing foresight and resiliency, he spends his time in Dallas libraries researching all the known information about the disease, discovering there is a government trial program administering AZT, which is the only known drug to have any effect, though there are significant side effects.  Also, this was still in the clinical trial stage, which takes months and years before results can be tabulated.  When you’ve been diagnosed as terminally ill, somehow the side effects aren’t your real worry, as it’s more about what’s killing you.  Losing 40 pounds for the role, McConaughey is an emaciated skeleton of a man whose life is slipping away from him.  Unable to legally buy AZT, he’s able to obtain some on the black market, as he has ready cash, but this pipeline closes when they lock it up in the hospitals.  He is, however, given a doctor’s name in Mexico that has the drug.  Driving the seven hours to Nuevo Laredo, he nearly collapses at the door.  What he does discover is an American doctor, Dr. Vass (Griffin Dunne), who’s been stripped of his license, but continues to practice in Mexico where his own research concludes that AZT is too strong, that it kills all the healthy cells, but that a patient’s health improves with vitamin and protein supplements.  Incredibly, Woodroof was still alive 3 month’s later, and his blood count was improving once he stopped taking AZT, which nearly killed him.  Returning back to Dallas with a trunkful of medicine, he began selling it to patients desperate for an alternative, one of whom is closer to the AIDS community than he is, a transvestite named Rayon (Jared Leto, in his first film in four years, who lost 30 pounds for the role), who becomes his business partner.  Together they rake in the money, but the FDA officials are on their heels, threatening to shut them down, which they eventually do, confiscating all their medicine.  When they re-open for business, they don’t sell drugs anymore, but buyer’s club subscriptions, where a monthly payment entitles the buyer to a month’s worth of pharmaceutical drugs.


While the film does show the Texas aversion to homosexuality, where discrimination is the rule, not the exception, Woodroof is initially skeptical to even be seen in the company of gays, but eventually he makes it into gay bars, where nearly all his customers hang out.  He and Rayon are a love/hate relationship in progress, continually getting on each other’s nerves, but they make a ton of dough while offering people the only known product that inhibits the progress of the HIV virus, so there are literally lines out their door for help.  While the film takes a shot at how the pharmaceutical business pays the FDA for what they want marketed and distributed, where AZT became the most expensive drug available, even with horrific side effects, the movie muddles any real developing connection in this area, as eventually it was determined the initial doses of AZT used were too high and the lowered doses used today have been much more successful.  In the early days of AIDS research, little was actually known, and what was known wasn’t released to the public fast enough.  Woodroof represents an anti-government strain at the time, especially since President Reagan and his Republican conservatives, largely supported by rabidly anti-gay religious fundamentalists, didn’t believe in government help, where by 1984 there were 2000 deaths and more than 4000 reported cases of AIDS in America, yet he remained indifferent to a national health crisis, only addressing the issue in 1987 near the end of his second term, forming a year-long commission to study the devastating effects of the disease, when by that time nearly 21,000 were dead and 36,000 Americans were diagnosed with AIDS.  The politics of the era are completely left out of the film, as are the medical statistics, where HIV currently infects 34 million people worldwide per year, where 10% of them are children. 


The use of Jennifer Garner is little more than a generic Hollywood treatment that demands a leading lady, and while she is terrific as a sympathetic hospital doctor who grows suspicious of the deadly effects of AZT, she also develops friendly relations with Woodroof, becoming a kind of romantic interest, especially since her normal looking physique stands out among streams of skeletal AIDS patients.  While the film can get ghoulish, with ghostly looking, overly emaciated clientele that resemble concentration camp survivors, the film interestingly adds the mysterious music of T-Rex, “Main Man” T. Rex - Main Man - YouTube (4:21) and “Life Is Strange” Marc Bolan and T. Rex - Life is Strange - YouTube (2:10), also an interesting joke where Rayon plasters their office with photos of lead singer Marc Bolan on the wall that Woodroof amusingly mistakes for Boy George.  After making the trip to Mexico some 300 times over the course of his lifetime, the life-saving network of smuggling underground experimental AIDS medications eventually comes to an end when the FDA tightens their restrictions, preventing medicines from other nations from entering the country, forcing AIDS patients to enter a bureaucratic maze of governmental dead ends and disillusionments.  The film is shot by cinematographer Yves Bélanger, who filmed Xavier Dolan’s Laurence Anyways (2012), yet here his use of handheld cameras expresses the restless anxiety of the characters who are racing to find a way to combat this disease, having literally no time to waste.  Despite the film’s best efforts, it doesn’t capture the nation’s dreaded fear of the disease, where no one was prepared for this, when at the time people were even afraid to touch AIDS patients, much less hug them.  It was an era when hospital workers were instructed to wipe down seats with Clorox where AIDS patients sat, where there was so much homophobia and racism surrounding the disease, creating terrible times, when no one would talk openly about the disease, including the government.  The film eulogizes Woodroof as an AIDS activist who’s something of a saint, while also portraying him as an utterly contemptible human being and a lifelong bigot, yet his predicament raises the question of when is breaking the law actually for the public good, as his underground pressure did shed needed light onto the government’s inactions, as they’d been dragging their feet for nearly five years, eventually forcing them to act more responsibly (which the film never shows) by providing needed medications to all American HIV patients, which by now effectively suppresses the spread of the virus.


Exclaim! [Daniel Pratt]

With all of the medical breakthroughs made in the past few decades, HIV is no longer the death sentence it once was. Today, most take for granted just how devastating an HIV diagnosis could be, and the corresponding societal ostracization. The '80s weren't that long ago, but the differences in how HIV patients were treated then versus now are worlds apart.

In Dallas Buyers Club, the year is 1985 and AIDS is still largely known as "the gay disease." Texan Ron Woodroof (Matthew McConaughey), a cocky, hustling, homophobic ladies man that enjoys fornicating with the local skanks — the film opens with a scene of him and two women in a rodeo bullpen — suddenly finds himself in uncharted waters when he's diagnosed with HIV. Told he only has 30 days to live, he not only has to deal with the medical blow he's dealt, but must also face (often violently) his former buddies and co-workers, who assume Ron was gay all along.

Initially in a state of denial, Ron quickly accepts his condition and seeks help from the sympathetic Dr. Eve Saks (Jennifer Garner), taking control of his fate in an attempt to save and prolong his life. AZT (the only drug at the time that showed some success in combating the virus) was in clinical trials, but Ron finds ways to get his hands on it. Quickly discovering the drug has numerous negative side-effects, he heads to Mexico in search of alternative treatment and meets a former American doctor whose non-narcotic methods have led to healthier options fighting the disease.

When the U.S. government challenges his efforts to smuggle the holistic but non-FDA approved medications home, he launches the Dallas Buyers Club. This club will allow fellow HIV patients to pay a monthly membership fee to obtain the treatments, thereby circumventing the law and ensuring that Ron can't be prosecuted as a drug peddler.

Initially seen as an outsider within the local gay community, Ron enlists the assistance of transsexual AIDS patient Rayon (Jared Leto), connecting him to the scene and establishing a level of trust. The Club quickly gains momentum, establishing Ron as an unlikely champion of not just the gay community but for the rights of patients seeking treatment.

Playing out as a dramatic retelling of the true story of Ron Woodroof, with the usual Hollywood embellishments, director Jean-Marc Vallée portrays this infamous moment of social U.S. history sensitively. Using a washed-out palette, the film has a gritty blue-grey aesthetic that perfectly captures the era and the locales.

With McConaughey and Leto both losing obscene amounts of weight for their respective roles, the inclination normally might be to scoff and label it gimmicky. However, in the case of Dallas Buyers Club, their transformations only serve to add to the authenticity of the story. Their performances are without a doubt Oscar-worthy and utterly captivating. That their unlikely business relationship leads to such personal introspection — on both sides — makes this one of the most unusual and emotionally compelling duos seen on screen.

Dallas Buyers Club is much more than just the usual epiphanies and life lessons found in similar films. It succeeds through the smallest moments of its story — those that not only acknowledge Ron Woodroof's memory, but pay homage to an entire assemblage of human suffering, communities and well-being.

Tiny Mix Tapes [Robert Ham]

Who is it that we have to thank for Matthew McConaughey’s career resurgence? His agent? His mom? His smoking partner Woody Harrelson? His own fevered mind? Whomever or whatever it might be, they deserve a raise, a plaque, a medal, or at least a shout out during the Oscars when McConaughey’s picking up a statue at long last. We have to know that’s coming. Look at the man’s resume over the past three years: his stellar supporting turns in Magic Mike, The Paperboy, and Bernie, and his starring performances in Killer Joe and Mud. An amazing hitting streak, and maybe enough to finally wash away the bad taste of all those romantic comedies he’s stumbled through.

Add to this peerless run, his latest effort is a starring with a capital “S” role in Dallas Buyers Club. In this film, McConaughey plays Ron Woodruff, a good ol’ boy hustler whose careless ways with women, drink, and drugs comes back to haunt him when he is diagnosed with HIV and told he has, at best, 30 days to live. Rather than swallow this humbly, Woodruff fights back, at first scoring some AZT (in clinical trials at the time) and then departing for Mexico to obtain some non-FDA approved meds. Woodruff is emboldened by the results and brings cases of it back to Dallas with him to sell to his fellow AIDS-sufferers. With the help of one such patient, a pre-op transwoman named Rayon (played by Jared Leto), he sets up the titular club, which offers as much medicine as a person needs for a monthly fee.

As with most of McConaughey’s performances, how he centers himself within this role is through his physicality. That meant dropping 30 pounds and looking downright skeletal. As Woodruff, he moves with a bit of a swagger that slowly gets chipped away as the story moves forward. With that core in place, McConaughey brings the rest of his performing gifts to bear, being at times charming (particularly with actress Jennifer Garner who plays a local doctor that supports Woodruff’s effort), gruff, angry, and desperate. McConaughey beautifully underplays it all, making his character’s journey even more special to witness.

And his performance is especially, shockingly great when the rest of the film is taken into account. Canadian director Jean-Marc Vallee does his level best with this rough sketch outline of real events, but too often relies on moments stretched to the breaking point for maximum heart string yanking effect. This could have been especially bad in the case of Rayon’s dramatic arc. But again, the acting saves the day: Leto has never been better in any role as he is here. Every time you think he’s going to devolve into camp, he reins it in enthrallingly. Even in the big scene, when Rayon sucks up her pride and slips her frail body into a suit to seek help from her estranged father, Leto threads the emotional needle so carefully. He’s a true match for McConaughey’s brash and bold work.

On top of a compelling character study, Dallas Buyers Club also provides a subtly scathing indictment of the FDA’s foot-dragging during the first years of the AIDS crisis. Sure, the big bad fed who comes a-knockin’ on the club’s hotel room/office is played up for villainous effect, but there are enough underlying issues dredged up about the dangers of early AZT trials and how hospitals and clinics were laid under the thumb of the pharmaceutical industry that this would make for a fantastic double feature with How To Survive A Plague.

Cinemixtape [J. Olson]

You’ve seen “Dallas Buyers Club” before. Regardless of how good its performances are (quite good), apart from how worthy its story is of being told (very worthy), it’s the classic David vs. Goliath underdog narrative repurposed as a socially conscious drama – one that’s just crying out for Oscar attention. It’s a weightier version of “Erin Brockovich,” but without the kind of bold artistic choices that the heaviness of the story suggests. That said, it’s rather good for what it is – a straightforward but well-acted documentation of one man’s fight against the FDA on behalf of AIDS patients everywhere, himself included.

Much has been made of Matthew McConaughey’s massive weight loss for his role here. In the late 90s and early 00s, stars like Tom Hanks and Christian Bale began turning cinematic weight loss into a selling point, a gimmick, and as a result, it doesn’t surprise us like it once did. Thusly, the weight loss of McConaughey and his co-star, Jared Leto, seems tired despite being inherent to the story.

Inspired by true events, the film is set in 1986. McConaughey plays Ron Woodroof, a hard-living rodeo rider – and a virulent racist and homophobe. When Ron is diagnosed with HIV and given 30 days to live, he immediately goes into denial. He refuses to believe that he could have a disease associated with gay men, a fear only stoked by his friends’ homophobic taunts. Soon, he begrudgingly accents his nasty drug and alcohol regimen with AZT – the only FDA-approved drug for AIDS patients.

As his health spirals out of control, Ron’s stubbornness takes over – seemingly the first time it’s ever done him any good. He scours the black market for alternative medicine and finds luck in Mexico. Soon, he crosses paths with Rayon (an equally emaciated Jared Leto), a transgender AIDS victim, and they begin selling drugs out of a motel room. The two performances are equally memorable, but McConaughey is more in his comfort zone, southern drawl and gritty charm intact.

It’s Leto that really spreads his wings here. In his first role since 2009 – he left acting to focus on his band, 30 Seconds To Mars – he puts a frail, human face on the AIDS crisis, doing more than McConaughey with less screen time. Rayon isn’t nearly as charismatic as Ron, but the performance is more genuine and more surprising. Unfortunately, the screenplay betrays some of Leto’s work by sidestepping some of the horror that is AIDS – most of the character’s physical anguish presumably occurs offscreen.

Jennifer Garner supports as a doctor who serves as a conduit between Woodroof and the FDA, while the rest of the cast reliably fills out a variety of functional but genuine supporting characters. Director Jean-Marc Vallee does well in shuttling back and forth between people and places, often overlapping audio in an attempt to give the film an appropriately austere, indie vibe. But a handful of creative visual and audio cues don’t assuage the feeling that “Dallas Buyers Club” is content to play things safe.

The screenplay – by Craig Borten and Melisa Wallack – is disappointingly one-dimensional, their words doing little more than setting the stage for McConaughey and Leto. Aside from these two characters, the script is a dearth of energy, moving sluggishly from point A to point B. Without its two stars realizing their characters so well, the film would be instantly forgotten by critics and audiences alike. And much of that blame would sit rightfully at the feet of its screenwriters.

But even though the narrative lacks propulsion – and it’s overlong, to boot – “Dallas Buyers Club” is a welcome acting showcase for two likable leads, both of whom are writing unlikely comeback stories of their own. These aren’t the best performances of the year, but they’re certainly worthy of recognition – as are the real people they’re portraying. And in that light, the film is a resounding success. Audiences that don’t fall victim to hype will find plenty to enjoy here.

For Matthew McConaughey, next up is true-life tale of 'The Dallas ...  Robert Wilonsky from the Pop Culture Blog, July 20, 2012


The Dallas Cowboy Behind The Real 'Buyers Club' : NPR  Elizabeth Blair


The true story behind dallas buyers club: meet the real ron woodruff  Andrew Romano from The Daily Beast


David Edelstein on 'Dallas Buyers Club' - New York Magazine


Pick of the week: A Texas cowboy faces AIDS -  Andrew O’Hehir from Salon


Ferdy on Films [Roderick Heath]


Dallas Buyers Club / The Dissolve  Tasha Robinson


Dallas Buyers Club and the history of AIDS on film / The Dissolve  Noel Murray and Scott Tobias conversation from The Dissolve


Review: Smart & Entertaining 'Dallas Buyers Club' Starring Matthew ...  Kevin Jagernauth from The Playlist


The Steve Pulaski Message Board [Steve Pulaski]


The House Next Door [Nick McCarthy]


PopMatters  Cynthia Fuchs


Dallas Buyers Club (2013) Movie Review from Eye for Film  Jennie Kermode


Filmleaf [Chris Knipp]


SBS Film [Michelle Orange]


The Simple Grace of 'Dallas Buyers Club' - The Wire  Richard Lawson


Paste Magazine  Tim Grierson 


Slant Magazine [Jesse Cataldo]


The Film Stage [Jared Mobarak]


Surrender to the Void [Steven Flores]


Sound On Sight (Diana Drumm) [Vince Leo]


Movie Mezzanine [Anna Tatarska]


'Dallas Buyers Club' Review: Pulling Punches - Pajiba  Daniel Carlson


Dallas Buyers Club - HitFix  Drew McWeeny - theatrical [Jamie S. Rich]


MonstersandCritics [Anne Brodie]


IONCINEMA [Nicholas Bell]


Cinemablographer [Pat Mullen]


Dallas Buyers Club (2013) - Reelviews Movie Reviews  James Berardinelli


Movie Review - 'Dallas Buyers Club' - : NPR  Bob Mondello


ReelTalk [Frank Wilkins]


Twitch [Peter Martin] [Jordan Hoffman]


Mark Reviews Movies [Mark Dujsik] [Brian Orndorf]


Ozus' World Movie Reviews [Dennis Schwartz] [Jack Gattanella]


Shockya [Harvey Karten]


FilmFracture [James Jay Edwards]


Jay's Movie Blog [Jay Seaver]


The Reel [Lisa Minzey] [Kurt Loder]


Georgia Straight [Ken Eisner]


Dallas Buyers Club : The New Yorker  David Denby (capsule review)


Reel Film Reviews [David Nusair]


'Dallas Buyers Club' movie review: Matthew ... - Washington Post  Ann Hornaday


The Cleveland Movie Blog [Pamela Zoslov]


Kansas City Star [Jon Niccum]


Austin Chronicle [Marjorie Baumgarten]


Reagan's AIDS Legacy / Silence equals death - SFGate  Allen White from The San Francisco Chronicle, June 8, 2004


Dallas Buyer's Club Review: Matthew McConaughey Shines as an ...  Stephanie Zacharek from The LA Times


Dallas Buyers Club Movie Review (2013) | Roger Ebert  Glenn Kenny


Matthew McConaughey Stars in 'Dallas Buyers Club' -  A.O. Scott


Ron Woodroof Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story -


WILD                                                              B-                    80

USA  (115 mi)  2014  ‘Scope                 Official site


I chose to tell myself a different story from the one women are told.

—Cheryl Strayed, author of Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail, 2012


Adapted from the 2012 memoir, Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail by Cheryl Strayed, this is a case where literature is the better format than film, as most of the story is told through seemingly disconnected, stream-of-conscious thoughts that continually feel fragmented in the film, randomly pulled together through music and flashback sequences, but it all feels so cliché’d, especially the choices of music, which are mere snippets, where the audience never gets a feel for how or why this journey is so essential, other than on a superficial level.  It’s not unusual for people’s lives to fall apart from time to time, but this is certainly an unusual method to put the missing pieces back together again.  By the end, despite the grand poetic gesture, supposedly finding transcendence in the final moment, there’s little reason to believe this character is really any different, as she’s always been the sum of her parts.  The film pales in comparison to the male counterpart, Sean Penn’s Into the Wild (2007), where the characters throughout are more deeply fleshed out and complex, offering more memorable performances, where here it feels more like a mother and daughter film, where neither one is fully revealed, but remain abstract configurations.  Reese Witherspoon purchased the rights to the book, while Oprah listed it on her Oprah's Book Club 2.0 in June, 2012, becoming a #1 best seller for seven weeks, where Witherspoon plays the lead character (author Cheryl Strayed) and is also a producer on the film.  While the backstory is only revealed in flashback, the film counts off the days in 1995 as 26-year old Cheryl begins her journey alone in the Mohave Desert near the Mexican border and follows the Pacific Crest Trail through the mountainous terrain of the Sierra Nevada in California and the southern end of the Cascade Range in Oregon, where hikers have to make sure they complete enough miles every day to reach the opposite end of the trail before weather conditions make snowy sections impassable, targeting several resupply points en route to stock up on food and water, until reaching the Bridge of the Gods traversing the Columbia River at the border of Washington, the lowest elevation of the entire 1100-mile journey that took over 3-months.  While the feat is not to be minimized, something very few could actually accomplish, nonetheless the film itself minimizes the difficulty of the journey and instead attempts to reveal the unfolding narrative through the restlessness anxiety of her interior world.   


While Cheryl Strayed is a novelist and essayist, someone extremely familiar with words and language, this adaptation by Nick Hornby is a poor substitute, as the various sequences never feel connected, but remain isolated moments, as people Cheryl meets along the road simply vanish from view without a word, where they, along with her memories, are like ghosts following her along the trail, where they never materialize into living, breathing human beings that matter to the audience.  Instead, the camera focuses entirely on Cheryl 100% of the time, where everything else is incidental, even the vastness of the wilderness, beautifully photographed by Yves Bélanger, where despite the continuing timeline, there is no real comprehension of time and distance, as the film really takes place inside her head.  While the experience is a document of mood swings, resembling Danny Boyle’s 127 HOURS (2010), it lacks that film’s intensity and sense of desperation as well as the degree of difficulty encountered, though both rely upon the interior world of flashbacks.  In the end it becomes a road movie, where Cheryl’s initial encounters with her own naiveté reflect just how angry and unprepared she is to make such an extreme journey, where the F-word is littered throughout, but she receives needed help and excellent advice along the way.  One of the more unusual scenes is seeing Cheryl and Paul (Thomas Sadoski), her husband of seven years, getting matching tattoos, something they can share forever even as it comes on the day they are getting divorced.  Their familiarity with each other is touching, especially when Cheryl acknowledges she cheated on him, obviously recognizing the cost at that moment, adding that she actually cheated on him a lot.  This may be their closest moment together throughout the film, though it only hints at her own personal descent into reckless drug abuse and a rampant proclivity for sleeping around with any man that so much as looks at her.  Much of these self-destructive experiences are narrated as she hikes along the trail, becoming a parallel world of soul searching through her past that she carries with her throughout her long and arduous ordeal.


Perhaps the heart of the film is her close relationship with her mother Bobbi, Laura Dern, who rescued her and her little brother from an abusive and alcoholic father, yet maintained her dignity and self-esteem throughout the ensuing years of struggle, sacrificing all to make sure her children had a brighter future than her own, suggesting she would never change a thing if it produced something as beautiful as her two children, but she dies quickly at the age of 45 after being diagnosed with lung cancer, fueling a period of rage and self-destruction.  Her own history of sexual violation leaves her even more exposed as a lone traveler through such remote territory, where she has to instantly assess her encounters with various men, where the possibility of sexual violence is always on the back of her mind, yet it’s the terrain she’s chosen to navigate on her own terms.  What’s perhaps most surprising is how few negative encounters she has, where most everyone she meets is helpful and overly friendly, except for a couple of leering, beer guzzling DELIVERANCE (1972) guys carrying bows and arrows, who find it most peculiar to run into a woman alone in the woods, though we never get a clear picture of just how much time is spent alone.  When she wanders into the heart of civilization, where a guy is passing out flyers for a musical tribute to Jerry Garcia, who just passed away, she jolts at the closeness of his physical presence, something she’s obviously not been used to for several months, where she has to recalibrate her bearings.  But apparently it’s like riding a bike, as in no time she’s hopped into the sack with the same guy, heading back out the next morning.  Particularly because she crosses through some of the prime real estate for pot growing in America, one wonders what might have been cleaned up for the movie, as drug use is not uncommon for back packers in that neck of the woods, but this subject is completely glossed over without incident.  While we assume Cheryl has gone through some psychological trajectory, this is never evident, though a final sequence attempts to grow increasingly transcendent without ever actually rising to the moment.  It recalls a more dramatically compelling bridge sequence at the end of Chris Eyre’s SMOKE SIGNALS (1997), where both films attempt to reconcile the violence and discord of their pasts with a Siddhartha-like moment of self-realization. 


Georgia Straight [Craig Takeuchi]

In the wake of the acclaimed Dallas Buyers Club, Québécois director Jean-Marc Vallée takes a misstep with screenwriter Nick Hornby's adaptation of Cheryl Strayed's memoir. While the film recounts Strayed's solo trek along the Pacific Crest Trail, from the Mojave Desert to Washington State, the real story appears embedded in the all-too-brief flashback montages. Glimpses of Strayed's self-destructive behaviour and emotional turmoil after the death of her mother—her mourning, a descent into drug abuse, indiscriminate sex, divorce, and more—is far more complex and compelling than how her attempt at self-confrontation is depicted here. Moreover, repeated buildup of tension, hinting at foreboding events along the hike, culminate in nothing, making the narrative amount to little more than Eat Pray Hike.  

In Review Online [Calum Reed]

If therapy comes in many different forms, Jean-Marc Vallée's Wild demonstrates that some of those are fairly unorthodox. Does one really need to hike over a thousand miles to find oneself? The aptly named Cheryl Strayed did, as she detailed in her memoir, Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail. Excising the subtitle, Vallée's film follows Strayed (Reese Witherspoon), a recovering heroin addict, on her hike through Western America and Canada.

“It must be hard for you to see that I’m so much more intellectual than you were at your age,” a college-age Strayed says to her mother Bobbi (excellently played by Laura Dern). It’s an awfully condescending and immature comment to make, but one that characterizes Strayed’s constant evaluation of herself. Wild is not about the why, but rather the how, since Strayed won’t even pretend that she’s halfway prepared for the trek. Cheryl’s honesty throughout is disarming: She refuses to blame anyone but herself, willingly accepting that she was out of control and aware of the pain she was causing, but selfishly unable to drag herself up from drug-induced indignity.

Wild is greatly enhanced by Vallée's unfussy direction and shrewd editing, breezing between time periods of Strayed as a girl, in college, in mid-marriage crisis, and in post-addiction solitude with a wondrous ease. As Strayed, Witherspoon damps down her usual peppy charm, exercising humility and naturalism, a feat that has roundly and rightly been declared her best dramatic work to date. Though the film occasionally veers into preachy territory, for the most part Wild successfully avoids the sort of shallow self-help homilies that plagued Julia Roberts' similarly themed pilgrimage in Eat Pray Love (2010).

Wild / The Dissolve  Scott Tobias

“I’d rather be a hammer than a nail,” croons Paul Simon in the Simon & Garfunkel song “El Condor Pasa (If I Could).” “Yes I would, if I only could, I surely would.” The track pops up more than once in Wild, an adaptation of Cheryl Strayed’s 2012 memoir, and it becomes a kind of mantra for a young woman who presses through hardships and bad choices, angling for a firmer grip on the handle. As played by Reese Witherspoon, whose excellence is by now a given, Cheryl is a bundle of contradictions—hapless and determined, directionless and down-to-earth, a hot mess on the road to getting her head straight. She’s such a full-bodied, multi-faceted character, in fact, that it’s a shame there has to be an accounting of each aspect of her personality. But this being an adaptation of a memoir—and what’s more, an externalization of a struggle that half resides in the author’s head—those psychological elements are spilled onto the table like the contents of Ally Sheedy’s purse in The Breakfast Club. We see it all. 

Scripted by High Fidelity author Nick Hornby and directed by Jean-Marc Vallée, who also mildly arted-up last year’s Dallas Buyers Club, Wild is an episodic adventure of self-discovery in the vein of Into The Wild or Tracks, an Outback journey that was released earlier this year. In a sense, it’s like the inverse of the latter: Tracks follows a lonely 1,700-mile trek to the Indian Ocean; Wild follows a lonely 1,100-mile trek along the Pacific Crest trail between Mexico and Canada. Both interrupt the walk frequently by doling out flashbacks to explain why their intrepid journeywomen have embarked on such a dangerous voyage. The main difference is that unlike Mia Wasikowska in Tracks, Witherspoon’s Cheryl is woefully underprepared for the undertaking. There’s a recklessness to her endeavor that goes beyond a lust for life, an almost deliberate naiveté that spins off into spontaneous moments of danger and comedy. 

Less spontaneous is the backstory, which Hornby’s script sketches in via flashbacks, voiceover, and echoes from past to present. Looming largest in Cheryl’s mind is her mother Bobbi (Laura Dern), who raised her and her little brother after fleeing their abusive father, and who died quickly after being diagnosed with lung cancer at age 45. Bobbi’s death fuels a period of self-destruction for Cheryl, wherein she abuses the shameful pleasures of heroin and rough trade, and sabotages her relationship with her decent, caring husband Paul (Thomas Sadoski) in the process. Hiking the Pacific Crest Trail is both a means of escape and rejuvenation for Cheryl, who’s totally lost her bearings. When a freelance journalist for Hobo Times requests an interview, she objects to being dubbed a “lady hobo,” but has no good counterargument. 

Cheryl’s lack of preparation is a tragicomic well from which Wild repeatedly draws, from an overstuffed backpack dubbed “the monster” to the wrong cooking equipment to a pair of too-tight hiking boots that ravage her feet. But for as much trouble as the film has gracefully conveying her past and her interior life on screen, her encounters on the trail double as a bracing allegory for how single women must navigate a world that’s alight with hostility and threats. Her vulnerability as a lone traveler in extreme isolation at first feels like dramatic manipulation, a way of goosing up an innocuous encounter with a liquor-swilling (and licorice-eating) workman. But time and again, she has to assess the possibility of sexual aggression and violence in order to make her way safely down the path. Sometimes guile is her saving grace; sometimes, it’s just plain luck. 

Hornby and Vallée never quite solve the daunting problem of fully explicating Cheryl’s troubles and motives without stalling the film’s momentum or making it seem like she’s daydreaming at dramatically convenient times. No doubt she’s haunted by the things that have happened to her, but Wild has her gazing at thought bubbles, which siphons some of the urgency and ardor from the journey itself. The trade-off is ultimately worth it: Cheryl is a thoroughly realized, warts-and-all character, and the flashbacks contribute to that. But like their heroine, the filmmakers do some fumbling to get to their destination.

The New Yorker [Richard Brody]


National Review [Armond White]


Reese Witherspoon Hoboes Through the Winning Wild ...  Stephanie Zacharek from The Village Voice


Flavorwire [Jason Bailey]

Review: Reese Witherspoon is the one being tamed ... - HitFix  Drew McWeeny


Wild, reviewed: Reese Witherspoon takes an epic ... - Slate  Dana Stevens


Slant Magazine [Chris Cabin]


PopMatters [Cynthia Fuchs]


Film Racket [Chris Barsanti]


IC Places [Chris Knipp] [Jeff Nelson]


SBS Movies [Michelle Orange]


Review: Reese Witherspoon goes for it all in Wild - HitFix  Gregory Ellwood


The House Next Door [Michael Nordine]


The Steve Pulaski Message Board [Steve Pulaski]


Cinemablographer [Pat Mullen]


World Socialist Web Site [Joanne Laurier]


Seongyong's Private Place [Seongyong Cho]


Ferdy on Films [Marilyn Ferdinand] [Erik Lundegaard]


Wild | Reelviews Movie Reviews  James Berardinelli


Spectrum Culture [Jake Cole]


Dog And Wolf [Mark Wilshin] [Brian Orndorf] [Jeffrey Kauffman]


Reel Insights [Hannah McHaffie]  also seen here:  Hannah McHaffie [Hannah McHaffie]  and here:  Angeliki Coconi's Unsung Films [Hannah McHaffie]

Digital Spy [Stella Papamichael]

Cinemixtape [J. Olson]


Cinema365 [Carlos deVillalvilla]


Sound On Sight (J.R. Kinnard) [Kent Turner]


Wild Review Toronto Film Festival | Vanity Fair  Richard Lawson


[TIFF Review] Wild - The Film Stage  Sky Hirschkron


Wild  Jennie Kermode from Eye on Film


IONCINEMA [Nicholas Bell]


Cinescene [Howard Schumann]


Film Freak Central Review [Walter Chaw]


Wild puts Reese Witherspoon on an epic walk, and the audience in her shoes   Mike D’Angelo from The Onion A.V. Club


Ozus' World Movie Reviews [Dennis Schwartz]


"Wild's" Cheryl Strayed Becomes One With Reese ...  Maddie Oatman interview with Reese Witherspoon from Mother Jones, November/December 2014


Talking With the Authors of 'Gone Girl' and 'Wild' - NYTimes ...  Interview from The New York Times, November 19, 2014


Reese Witherspoon, from rom-com queen to 'Wild' woman  Betsy Sharkey interview from The LA Times, October 18, 2014


'Wild': Telluride Review - The Hollywood Reporter  Stephen Farber


Film Review: 'Wild' - Variety  Justin Chang


South China Morning Post [Yvonne Teh]


Westender Vancouver [Curtis Woloschuk] [Justin Craig] [Travis Hopson]  also seen here:  Punch Drunk Critics [Travis Hopson]


‘Wild’ movie review: Reese Witherspoon struggles to bring an emotionally distant character to life  Ann Hornaday from The Washington Post


The Cleveland Movie Blog [Pamela Zoslov]


Kansas City Star [Jon Niccum]


Austin Chronicle [Kimberley Jones]


The Oregonian [Jamie S. Rich]


'Wild' takes Reese Witherspoon into raw, bracing new territory  Betsy Sharkey from The LA Times


Wild Movie Review & Film Summary (2014) | Roger Ebert  Susan Wloszczyna


New York Times [A. O. Scott]  als seen here:  'Wild' Stars Reese Witherspoon - 


New York Times [Cara Buckley] [Jeffrey Kauffman]


'Wild,' a Hiking Memoir by Cheryl Strayed -  Dani Shapiro book review, March 30, 2012


Cheryl Strayed - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


'Trail angels' help keep Pacific Crest hikers on path  Chris Erskine from The LA Times, December 30, 2014

Valli, Alida – actress

Alida Valli Site

Alida Valli  Andre Soares from the Alternative Film Guide, also including:  Alida Valli: The Later Years

Alida Valli 1921-2006  from Cinebeats              

Van de Velde, Jean


Netherlands  (92 mi)  2008


The Silent Army  Lee Marshall at Cannes from Screendaily

It’s an ethical stretch to make a campaigning film about the plight of African child soldiers that is also in some ways an action movie – especially with a Dutch pop singer in the lead role. But The Silent Army mostly rises to the challenge, thanks to a strong script, some gritty performances and a welcome avoidance of sentimentality.

Some difficult-to-watch sequences which chart the brutalisation of child soldiers as they are turned from kids into killing machines raise the age-old question of whether showing such horrors on the screen can educate without being exploitative.  But Van De Velde’s film is clearly well-researched, and has a sensitive, at times even ironic approach to the white man’s burden of guilt about suffering Africans – and most audiences will give it the benefit of the doubt.

In fact The Silent Army is a fast-paced film with commercial appeal – far more so than another recent African child soldier drama, Heart of Fire. In the Netherlands, the film notched up a tidy 300,000 admissions earlier this year, and despite some specifically Dutch references and its mixture of English, Dutch and Luganda dialogue, it has international outreach – although this is not really an arthouse product, and pitching it to audiences who don’t normally do subtitles could be a problem.

A snappily edited prologue establishes the set up: Eduard (Borsato) owns a restaurant somewhere in an eastern African city (the film was shot in Uganda, but the script avoids naming real places, rebel armies, or charity organisations). When his wife is killed in a car accident, the overworked restaurateur-chef is left to care for his nine-year-old-son Thomas (Schoneveld), whose best friend is a local boy, Abu (Kintu).

Abu is abducted during an attack by rebel soldiers, leaving Thomas distraught. Eventually Eduard is spurred into shutting down his business and searching for Abu – his trump card being the fact that he knows rebel leader General Obeke (Abby Mukiibi Nkaaga), who was a regular client of Eduard’s restaurant back in the days when he was Minister of Defence.

A big singing star in the Netherlands, Borsato is not an actor of enormous range – but this comedy-tinged reluctant-hero character suits his talents. The film’s real dramatic focus is on Abu – lent intensity by first-time actor Andrew Kintu’s committed performance – and the film’s ‘bad father’, General Obeke (a terrific, imperious Nkaaga). The latter’s climactic encounter with Eduard plays cleverly with audience expectations, suggesting that there is more than one truth in a situation that the West hopes to solve through conscience-salving injections of money and aid.Theo van de Sande’s widescreen photography plays up the chaos and colour of the film’s African setting – and the stark beauty of the mountain landscapes where the rebel army plots its murderous raids.

Matt Bochenski  White Little Lies


The Silent Army  David Hudson at Cannes from The IFC Blog, May 23, 2009


Kirk Honeycutt  at Cannes from The Hollywood Reporter, May 23, 2009


Telling Stories From Africa  Joan Dupont at Cannes from The New York Times, May 20, 2009

Van den Berghe, Gust


Belgium  (74 mi)  2010

Little Baby Jesus of Flandr  Mark Adams at Cannes from Screendaily

Gust Van den Berghe’s beautifully shot black-and-white re-imaging of the story of the baby Jesus and the three wise men - itself based on Felix Timmerman’s work - is an engaging oddity, though one bound for a future on the festival circuit rather than at a cinema near you.

The story’s theatrical origins are clear to see in this modest-length tale, and while the underlying story is undoubtedly well known, the film is given a certain intriguing poignancy by the casting consisting mainly of mentally handicapped performers.

The Flemish backdrop balances modern-day bars, plumbing and music with a feel of a medieval rustic past in terms of the rural buildings and landscape. The film showed in Directors’ Fortnight.

The three wise men of this version - played enthusiastically by screen newcomers Paul Mertens, Jelle Palmaerts and Peter Janssens - meet in a bar for a little good-natured drinking before heading off into the snowy woods.

They eventually come across a mother and her baby, and dubbing themselves the Three Wise Men, decide to make offerings of crumpled cigarettes and opt to give away their modest gains in tribute to the arrival of the miraculous child.

The film is developed from debut writer-director Gust Van den Berge’s graduation film, and while elegantly staged and full of striking black-and-white compositions, it does have that underlying sense of an ambitious student project. Certainly there is a good deal of skill and ambition on show, but its target is certainly not a general filmgoing audience.

Midway through the threesome find themselves in a bar where we are treated to a striking - and brief - scene of a musical performance from a transvestite singer shot in lustrous colour, but before you know it the wise men are back in black-and-white, It is a striking and memorable moment, but one which again feels contrived and affected rather then integral to the modest storyline.

The performances by the Down’s syndrome cast are all sound and appropriate to the story, though even at a mere 74 minutes this slight and self-consciously arty affair stretches the attention.

Van den Berge has claimed he intends to feature the film as part of a triptych that are united in an umbrella theme of ‘humanity’, but look out for them at an art space rather than a cinema.

Van der Oest, Paula

MOONLIGHT                                                            C+                   78                                                                              

Netherlands Great Britain Luxembourg Germany  (90 mi)  2003


A bizarre, morbid film that features brief moments of nihilistic heavy metal music that sounds so wretched it’s as if it’s supposed to make you want to vomit, and those are the film’s best scenes.  Follow that train of thought and you’re right on track with this raunchy teen flick, the kind of film that plays on late, late, late night TV while you’re smoking pot, and it comes to life because, in an otherwise “B” movie, or even “C” movie production, the darkened photography, like something out of TALES OF THE CRYPT, is oddly compelling, and the mix of sound, image, and general creepiness all come together in a weird sort of sense where absolutely nothing needs to make sense.  In an EU co-production in English where the leads don’t even speak the same language, this is another one of those Hansel and Gretel variations with improbable happenings in the woods that looks like no one was paid anything on this production except the photographer, who was paid the entire budget.


Van Eecke, Pieter


SAMUEL IN THE CLOUDS                                  B-                    81

Belgium  Netherlands  Bolivia  (70 mi)  2016    Official site      


A North American premiere, an especially spare and meditative film that finds fascination with a particular mountain, the Chacaltaya (bridge of ice, or cold gate in the Aymara Indian language) that measures at 17,785 feet in Bolivia (higher than the Mt. Everest base camp), just 20 miles from La Paz, a city with a metropolitan population (including neighboring towns El Alto and Viacha) of over two million people.  What’s particularly unique is that there is a road where cars can drive to 17,115 feet, a practice of many mountaineers, where they simply have to climb the last 660 nearly vertical feet to the summit.  It’s also home to what was once the world’s highest ski resort, as a ski lift was installed in 1939, running with a car engine, where the ski season was from November to March each year.  We are introduced to Samuel Mendoza, an Aymara Indian who lives with his family in El Alto, as he is the only surviving employee of the Club Andino Boliviano, the Bolivian national ski club that used to organize South American championships to determine the best skiers from Argentina, Chile, or Colombia on the highest slope in the world.  Since he was a small child, Samuel only had to look up, as he could see the top of Chacaltaya, the mountain where his father worked, as did previous generations of his family, where it was always covered by a crest of white snow.  Samuel and the Aymara believe in ancient mountain spirits, or Achachillas, wise grandfathers who belong to Mother Earth and protect their children, so they make offerings to the gods and offer prayers.  Nearly every day the 52-year old Samuel walks the four-hour, nine and a half mile hike to the top of the mountain from his home, leaving before daybreak, working long hours at the lift, helping tourists or anyone interested how to ski, then walking home again at night for another four hours, as he has done for the past 30 years.  But something happened in that period of time, as the snow on the glacier completely disappeared after 2009, leaving behind only a sandy soil.  Without the snow, the skiers are gone, as only a handful of tourists show up, or a collective of scientists measuring the air quality.


Despite being the lone witness to the disappearance of the glaciers, Samuel does not believe in global warming, and prays that the snow will somehow return to the top of the mountain.  Climate experts predict that the disappearance of the glaciers in the Andes Mountains will lead to severe water shortages in the region that could affect as many as 80 million people, where already Bolivia’s second largest lake has dried up and disappeared (Bolivia's Lake Poopó Disappears : Natural Hazards).  Since 2011 the world’s highest scientific air monitoring station was built on Chacaltaya peak that includes a collection of research groups from France, Italy, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland, all part of the Global Atmospheric Watch that measures changes in atmospheric composition, monitoring of gases, characterization of particle properties, as well as radiation and meteorology, conditions for which the world has yet to provide any real solutions.  Even as several scientists regularly visit with Samuel, they are only a part of the mountain’s mystery.  Other families have been mining the mountain for minerals such as tin or zinc for decades, where individual families own certain mines that as the year’s progress dig deeper and deeper into the heart of the mountain.  Interrupting the quiet calm of the view from the top are intermittent dynamite blasts that can be heard throughout the film.  At the very top is an old wooden house sitting precariously on edge, with windows looking outwards in all directions, a place where Samuel can prepare a pot of mate, offering cups to any guests that arrive, while still housing all the old ski medals and sports memorabilia.  Several of the recent arrivals are experiencing altitude symptoms, feeling light-headed and faint, with racing heartbeats, as the body takes some serious adjustments to sudden changes in altitude, as there is less oxygen in the air.  Many Olympic and world class athletes train in these conditions, hoping to increase their endurance by forcing their bodies to produce extra red blood cells, which aids in the delivery of oxygen to their muscles.


It rarely snows at the top of the mountain anymore, yet Samuel recalls as much as 3-feet of snow would accumulate overnight.  The director was fortunate to be filming for the first snow in eight years, where people had to learn how to get used to it again.   Cars and tour buses had to be pushed out of snow banks, emptying the passengers, who then had to climb their way up the mountain.  On this occasion, a bus was delivering a group of musicians, but also another group of performing dancers, including women in brightly decorated native costumes.  After hiking up the mountain in the snow, they performed outdoors in the snow, as planned, creating a colorful, celebratory festivity.  The mood of the mountain changes throughout the film, engulfed in a mist of fog or snow, capturing the sunrises and sunsets from distant horizons, or simply offering an awe-inspiring view from on high, as the mountain provides a view of the world one rarely ever sees, becoming a picture of meditative serenity.  Samuel sadly points out the spot where his father fell off the cliff and died, indicating there was no safety netting or railing in those days, where accidents were more commonplace.  He also makes a calling sound for an eagle that drops out of the sky onto a wooden ledge at the side of the cliff, where a wild animal becomes a constant companion.  Still, it’s the image of the little rickety house sitting atop the mountain that holds the most fascination, sitting on a precipice, reminiscent of Chaplin in THE GOLD RUSH (1925), where he has to run to the other side of the cabin to keep it from tipping over and tumbling down the mountainside.  The mountain seems to defy time, standing firm for several million years, yet now suddenly at the center of a great warming trend that could have dramatic effects on the next generation of human life.  Yet, like Samuel, people tend to not want to believe these things will happen, remaining resigned to the inevitable course of nature for incidents like storms, famine, or flood, but this new possibility remains out of sight, something most people prefer not to think about, perhaps still hoping for the best.  It recalls a meditative line from a Donovan song, “First there is a mountain, then there is no mountain, then there is,” where something so obvious gets lost from sight, such as the view of a mountain when you are on a journey struggling to “climb” the mountain, yet once you reach the top, everything is clear again.   


Film: Samuel in the Clouds | BRUZZ   Niels Ruëll

Metaphors sometimes are up for grabs. The Flemish filmmaker Pieter Van Eecke opens with fanfare members in red-black uniform clambering on the Chacaltaya. This is a mountain in the Andes, a stone's throw from the Bolivian capital La Paz. A bare mountain top to be exact. Only the ski lift and a dilapidated shanty remember that we are in the highest ski resort in the world. The snow also kept skiers away. A thousand times greater catastrophe is that for the first time no longer a glacier thousands of years and no meltwater makes fertile the lowlands. Van Eecke upholds the principle that beautiful cinema documentary should not tell but show. He succeeds lift driver Samuel, who fused like his ancestors with the mountain and help invoking of old mountain spirits. What further monitors scientists from around the world the change in the atmosphere. Knowledge is power, but knowledge is apparently not enough. The band members are from the opening scene and the orchestra kept playing as the Titanic sank.

Samuel In The Clouds - 2016 - Mooov

Samuel, a 50-year-old Aymara man, everyday steps from El Alto to the former Ski Resort on the top of the Chacaltaya (5400 meters high) and it welcomes international tourists in a ski lodge. From there they have a breathtaking view of La Paz. For thirty years the ski lift attendant Samuel; In recent years the glacier melted completely. The man remains hopeful of new snow in the highest ski slope in the world. A hundred meters below the highest climate laboratory in the world, where scientists study climate change.

This author documentary brings a touching portrait of a mountain, a man, their shared past and the disappearance of their future. SAMUEL IN THE CLOUDS is the director an allegory of how humans deal with climate change. With the story of Samuel flying high above the clouds dreaming of new snow, climate activist and director Pieter Van Eecke draws attention to the environment and contributes creatively to the social debate.

Cinemagazine [Monica Meijer] (Dutch)

Climate change touches every earthling, all is still not everyone there consciously. We continue to take the car to pieces that also by bike or on foot to the mountains of plastic waste collected fortnightly in many Dutch municipalities for recycling seems not to diminish - although it can be as easy (!) - There lie kilos of meat on the barbecue and the energy consumption per household has never been so high. It remains a far-from-our-bed-show for many. Documentary 'Samuel in the Clouds' admittedly takes place in a land far-from-our-bed, Bolivia, but shows with a lot of feeling and compassion how the people there, with far fewer luxury goods than we their lives in the wealthy West have appointed, already firsthand feel what the disastrous consequences of climate change.

On what was once the highest ski resort on earth, Chacaltaya, the roots of title character Samuel. Samuel was lift attendant and even more several times a week the four hour trip (and four hours back!) From his modest home in El Alto to the 5,000 meter high mountain in the Andes. Mostly on foot, but if he's lucky, he gets a lift for part of the trip. His father died on the spot ( "That was a difficult year"), and Samuel, type of still waters run deep, holding off the boat when he is told that his vision goes back and he might have to quit his job.

Now that the snow has melted faster during the last decades, he receives no presidents or Olympic athletes, but every now and then about a minibus full of tourists (climbers, hikers). He makes tea for them and makes occasional chat. Since commuting still takes its toll, he remains ever sleep in the hut built of wood, which seems to lean precariously over the abyss. Various bowls and buckets have to absorb the moisture seeping through the roof, and thereby is that there is less oxygen is in the air. An attempt on his body so, but Samuel does not complain, he simply adapted himself. He strongly believes in the spirits of nature and the snow so on his retina. Armed with his skis - a surreal sight - he continues to believe in the return of the snow.

In sharp contrast, we are introduced to a group of scientists, which is slightly lower on the Chacaltaya their research packed with the most advanced measuring equipment. Scientist Isabel Moreno takes air samples and talk with colleagues around the world about the seriousness of the situation.

All of this comes to us in the most beautiful views you could ever wish for. Sweeping shots of the literally breathtaking scenery, so beautiful that you almost seem to breathe in the thin air. What 'Samuel in the Clouds' by Belgian filmmaker Pieter van Heecke doing so well is that the public is not printed freezing to face the alarming facts. It's a personal story - even though Samuel remains something of an enigma, which is symbolic of the impermanence of our planet and the consequences of what we are dealt, and still do now. It ensures that you - just to pick out the human story - sees the big picture of climate change. Impressive.

Recensie Samuel in the Clouds - Review op  Jelle Fastenau

The Chacaltaya, Bolivia. Samuel wistfully looking out from the control of the former ski resort on the highest mountain in the country on the hoist those years ago, dozens of skiers transported daily to the top of the glacier. Today, that image hard to imagine. The previously snow-white, snow-covered mountain has turned into a huge pile of sand.

The ski resort was unique in several respects its kind. Not only is it the only thing you'll find in Bolivia, in addition, it is about five kilometers above the highest near skiing with lift facility in the world. However, the glory of the past is reflected little more. The top is left and creaky wooden houses, which are still full of old medals and memorabilia, eyes dropped. The ski resort being run by the family of the fifties Samuel, who acts as protagonist in the documentary by Belgian director Pieter van Eecke.

Samuel's day starts early with a four-hour hike from his home to the top of the mountain. Although there are no skiers are more to be seen on the mountain, drive there every day several buses with tourists who come to visit the top of the mountain. Other visitors are international scientists who reveal the obvious cause of headaches Samuels: the warming of the globe. A solution to the problem is not there, but Samuel tries to ask the gods produces various rituals of slaughtering animals to complete with brass bands in native costumes, dancing men and women, some as strange as beautiful pictures.

Anyone looking for pretty pictures, this documentary is also at the right place, because of Eeckes film packed with beautiful wide shots is of the mountain landscape. The glacier may no longer be snowy, the peak still offers some breathtaking views fully come into their own on the big screen. Visually, the documentary also perfectly fine, but the great strength, however, lies in his message. Impressively is a major social problem created suddenly palpable, the small, personal scale of one man has suddenly whose entire way of life uncertain.

In that respect it is perhaps unfortunate that the distance between the viewer and the protagonist remains something big. Although here and there still some personal issues will be discussed - the misfortune of his father, Samuel's own deteriorating condition - you would afterwards still more to draw from Samuel. He sees the change with sorrow, but he would not have to create more pressure for its own future and that of his family, is now his livelihood at stake? What goes through the man, and what inspires him to hell again and again those hours long trek to the top of the mountain?

Somewhere it is frustrating that we as viewers have to guess at the answers, but at the same time of Eeckes approach is correct all the more striking. Sometimes it's more powerful for certain things to unspoken and images to do the work. Because really, what better place to be alone with your thoughts than five thousand meters high peak?

De Filmkrant :: Samuel in the Clouds (Pieter Van Eecke over)  Mariska Graveland

Samuel in the Clouds makes impressive show what thick climate report fails: the impact of climate change on the lives of the individual, in this case a lift attendant at a ski slope in the Andes. No more snow falls, so the lift is stationary. Documentary filmmaker Pieter Van Eecke: "We can understand climate change, but the acceptance is almost impossible."

Mount Chacaltaya in La Paz was at 5400 meters the highest ski resort in the world, but snow has been here for years far away. The glacier melting faster than thought, much to the chagrin of the Bolivian Samuel, who here once operated the ski lift and the snow disappear. Now he receives tourists walking in his leaky hut literally on the brink of a precipice. How symbolic you have it.

The maker of the visually powerful documentary Samuel in the Clouds, the Belgian Pieter Van Eecke, says Skype that he visited the mountain many years ago and stood transfixed. "The hut is already a few decades, and adorned ever on the cover of the Lonely Planet Bolivia - it is indeed a very compelling picture I have lived ten years in Latin America and arrived in 2012 at the top right. An otherworldly place, and suddenly a man came out, Samuel, I exchanged a few words with it. I just knew that there was a ski, and only then I discovered the whole story of the glacier that recently there melted and that there was near a laboratory environment that poorly maintained cabin Samuel has such a strong metaphorical power. The house of the man nearly falls over. "

While the near-based scientists for their climate research mountain air collected in plastic bags, Samuel sees regular mountain spirits. "I gradually discovered the magical world of Samuel Samuel is a man of few words, it was a chore to visualize his magical world of nature has been inhabited for Samuel by ghosts -. Too stones, rivers and trees I show. The two approaches to the world, the magical and the rational, side by side, without choosing. What I gradually have discovered that both Samuel and the scientists actually be amazed by the changes. We would expect the science settled by his rational approach land would have underfoot, but researchers are still more disorientated than Samuel, because they are so imbued with the pace of change. Samuel was left, he can better deal with impermanence.

"Samuel has a different perception of time, knowing looks to the future, while Samuel the future is something you do not see, therefore, that lies behind him, what he sees before him is the past, like his deceased father, but I wanted Samuel to imagine an indigenous man who has a relationship with nature that we no longer have. The reality in La Paz is the Aymara Indians still neoliberal recent years and have a desire for wealth. the dividing line that used to be made between indigenous peoples who are close to nature and the runaway beaten Western society is currently not so sharply drawn."

symbol Glacier
Van Eecke will save through the perspective of Samuel climate change back to a human scale, without an alarmist or pedantic tone or to announce the Apocalypse. References to climate change are subtle. For example, through a patch of a call on the radio when someone says that he can not comprehend the scope of climate change, and find it difficult to continue normal daily life while there is something big going on. Samuel hopes to turn still coming back the snow. If a problem is too big, we try to deny it or to extend for us. "We can climate change understand, but the acceptance is almost impossible. Like the mountain Chacaltaya has disappeared from Kilimanjaro snow. Actually, all tropical glaciers are melting much faster than previously thought twenty years ago. Chacaltaya is actually a symbol glacier since he first was melted by a combination of climate change and pollution. The city's soot ensure that sunlight is more absorbed by the snow making it melts faster. All the glaciers in the Andes are melting. The prospects in the short term are dramatic, the drinking water supply of millions of people come to the altiplano in danger because the glacier does not fill more Lake Titicaca. As a result, many people will be dependent on the rains. We do not know how it will develop, probably there is a lot of rain quickly followed by long dry periods. This will mean the end of many agricultural areas. The expectation is that will attract more people to the city, which is even worse when there is less water available. The government should also take preventive measures to channel mudslides and washouts counter, but that is not the case. There is no adaptation strategy.

"The difficulty is that if you are not next to a glacier or on a small island live where sea levels are rising, climate change remains invisible, even show reports on how fast it all goes. In Bolivia remains for city dwellers still fairly invisible, but that will not be long. Just tropical countries will be the first affected by climate change, Europe still has only to contend with bare slopes that must be pollinated with nepsneeuw."

Van Eecke sees itself as a climate activist, but did not activist documentary. "In daily life, I am aware of the need to see if the growth that lies at the basis of our economic system is still tenable. The making of this documentary made me even more with my nose pressed to the facts, and although the film is poetic and activist, I hope the documentary can contribute to awareness among the viewers. I would be delighted if the man can continue to walk around a few generations on this globe. "

What does Van Eecke think of the small group of activist shareholders Shell wants to change from within by thinking how the company can sustain? "We have all the strategies needed, but I do not know whether the greening of Shell practicable, after all it is a fossil fuel company. If we are in the year 2100 no more than 2 degrees global average temperature increase like we should stop using fossil fuels, but of course that is not from one day to another. I also have a lot of sympathy for activists to halt mining, or for climate protesters last here in Belgium. I think it all has to happen at the same time, supported by political figures who have the courage have put climate change on the agenda. the difficulty is that all politics but is working on a mandate for four years, so the one who put climate change on the agenda is the one who risks losing votes."

Super Organism
Van Eecke previously made a documentary about the aftermath of the earthquake in Haiti, where he lived for four years. "It interests me that human life is in extreme situations, where certain things more strongly reflected. Samuel in the Clouds is about climate change, of course, but it's also about impermanence and the life that is transient. I Samuel and scientists therefore sometimes small filmed in panoramic shots of the mountain. "

We feel so often king of the world, but there are also people with other views. Geologist Peter Westbroek example, in his inspiring book The Discovery of the Earth calls for more wonder about the earth, which can be viewed as a superorganism where humans have a symbiotic relationship with it. We need not be afraid of the planet Earth, we are part of. "Definitely. The whole way of consumption that has us all wrong and placed outside nature has developed so much in the last century, our contact with them is quite clear. We consider the nature for a long time as something subordinate, to be a mining object in the service of man. That idea has many wortels- capitalism, in certain religious ideas which nature has been explicitly at the service of man, as the woman had to be the man in the service. The alienation that we known in Western society towards our own environment, the air we breathe, the food we eat, which alienation is huge. You simultaneously see that a lot of people's worth going to see in gardening in the city, and beehives on put the roofs, you see these two movements together. "

Why these ideas are actually so slow? If the whole world within a year has fallen to the smartphone, we can not massively embrace sustainable technologies which we all better? "There are a lot of positive initiatives and technologies that fantastic offer alternatives, such as solar energy, only the government grants that are now massively invested in fossil fuels have to go all the way towards sustainable development, which would already be a great step. The alternatives have not been invented to that already exist. It is not too late, we should not do defeatist, we can adapt. "

Klimaatverandering: 'Soms vertelt één documentaire meer dan ...   Kathleen Van Brempt


The World's Highest Elevation Ski Resort = Chacaltaya, Boliva ...  Snow Brains


In Bolivia, World's Highest Ski Resort Melting Away - Planet Ark  Helen Popper, March 27, 2006


REVIEW | cineMÁS 2016 | SPHINX CINEMA | Tumult  interview, April 27, 2016


Bolivian Ski Resort On Downward Slide Climate ... - Washington Post  Helen Popper, April 2, 2006


Bolivia's Only Ski Resort Is Facing a Snowless Future - The New York ...  Simon Romero from The New York Times, February 2, 2007


Van Groeningen, Felix


THE MISFORTUNATES (La Merditude des Choses)

Belgium  France  Netherlands  (108 mi)  2009

The Misfortunates (La Merditude des Choses)  Dan Fainaru at Cannes from Screendaily
A literal English translation of the title might better prepare the audience for La Merditude Des Choses. Adapted from the highly successful autobiographical novel by Dimitri Verhulst, this scatological coming of age story is told through the eyes of a 13-year-old boy growing up in a small village with his father and three uncles, all of them large, drunken, incorrigible louts. It mixes rambunctious, intentionally vulgar humour with a pinch of pathos and plenty of cynicism. The result is something which will probably go down well in Northern Europe but could suffer as it moves down towards the sun.
Taking place in two parallel time frames, it tells the disturbing story of Gunther Strobbe (played as a boy by Kenneth Vanbaeden and as an adult by Valentijn Dhaenens). An unwanted son who grows up to become an unwilling father, Gunther is first seen at 13, trying to do his homework in a pub while his dad Cel (De Graeve), ostensibly the village postman, drinks himself into a stupor with his brothers. Later Gunther is revealed in the present day, aged 33 and the narrator of this story. He’s a frustrated author who keeps writing novels which are rejected.
The film itself consists of a series of brief episodes, all of them in brutal bad taste. Throughout them runs a theme of throwing decency to the wind, exorbitant boozing, and a general relish for breaking society’s rules. The four brothers, and with them every able-bodied man in the village, participate in nude bicycle races and food and drink competitions (shades of Taxidermia). They never speak when they can shout, and never respect a rule when they can ignore it. This isn’t so much social protest as a visceral assertion of independence from any code of conduct or social responsibility. In the background, trying to limit the damage to the best of her ability is Gunther’s saintly grandmother (De Bal).
Shooting and cutting the film with a frenetic drive and energy, it seems at times as if van Groeningen goes along with the assumption that life is an uninterrupted ball and treats the Strobbe clan with a kind of barely dissimulated sympathy.
But then, gradually, he instills a sort of quiet despair that takes away most of the gaiety and underlines the damage it is all causing. The casting, mostly of unknowns outside Belgium, works perfectly. And using pre-classical excerpts, from Monteverdi and Orlando di Lassus, is just the kind of absolute order in art that best contrasts with the chaos on screen. 


Boyd van Hoeij  at Cannes from Variety, May 17, 2009

Calling the Strobbe clan a working-class family would imply that some of its members worked (or had class), but none of the lowlife protags do in the visually robust and often hilarious Flemish tragicomedy "The Misfortunates." Based on a semi-autobiographical novel by Dimitri Verhulst, pic offers young helmer Felix van Groeningen ("Steve + Sky") a solid base -- and plenty of lowest-common-denominator humor -- from which to spin another ravishing-looking tale of the ordinary lives of extraordinary Belgians. Flemish and foreign interest should follow a similar trajectory to those of other recent local successes such as "Moscow, Belgium" and "Eldorado."

Helmer was the perfect choice to adapt Verhulst's bestseller, as both the book and van Groeningen's earlier work successfully combined a high level of artistry -- and, to an extent, artifice -- with an exploration of everyday, almost banal subjects. However, the helmer's previous films had a slight tendency to ramble, which is curbed here by the underlying thematic connective tissue of Verhulst's novel.

Few subjects could be more banal than the small-town Strubbe clan. Mother Strubbe (Gilda De Bal), whose "heart is bigger than her pension," has four good-for-nothing adult sons (Koen De Graeve, Wouter Hendrickx, Johan Heldenbergh, Bert Haelvoet) who have all moved back in with her because of money troubles. They spend the day getting drunk, eating raw sausages and singing vulgar songs.

Looking to grow up amid the fumes, vomit and stench of stale beer is 13-year-old Gunther (Kenneth Vanbaeden), the son of Marcel (De Graeve). As in the novel, this narrator is more of an observer than an active participant as he tries to discover what being family means -- even if his relatives make the Beverly Hillbillies look well-adjusted.

Triggering this search is a crisis in the boy's life some 14 years on, when Gunther, now an aspiring novelist (Valentijn Dhaenens), is about to become a father himself. Pic slides smoothly between the late '80s and early 2000s, and the narrative jumble is nimbly edited by Nico Leunen.

Van Groeningen uses an anecdotal, vignettish approach that underlines Gunther's search for connecting themes, rather than a desire to paint psychologically refined portraits of characters who are anything but. The director also applies this to the visuals, which effortlessly mix a variety of styles, suggesting the effects of hindsight and memory.

Ace d.p. Ruben Impens fully exploits the possibilities of his Red One digital camera, evoking everything from saturated film stock to playful black-and-white to crystalline contempo lensing.

Like the novel, "The Misfortunates" starts out as an extremely lowbrow comedy (highlights include several variations on beer-drinking contests) but morphs into a bittersweet meditation on whether familial love and pride are enough to sustain a proper upbringing.

Thesping is appropriately brawny, with De Graeve's loose-canon father emotionally anchoring the picture; only legit vet De Bal seems out of her depth. Production and costume design are spot-on, and Jef Neve's score nicely enhances the various moods.

Pic's international moniker replaces the equally awkward earlier translation "The Alasness of Things," which was a closer approximation of the novel's original title.

Cannes. "The Misfortunates"  David Hudson at Cannes from The IFC Blog, May 17, 2009


Duane Byrge  at Cannes from The Hollywood Reporter, May 17, 2009


THE BROKEN CIRCLE BREAKDOWN            B                     87

Belgium  Netherlands  (111 mi)  2012) ‘Scope               Official Site


If I needed you would you come to me,
Would you come to me, and ease my pain?
If you needed me
I would come to you
I'd swim the seas for to ease your pain

In the night forlorn the morning's born
And the morning shines with the lights of love
You will miss sunrise if you close your eyes
That would break my heart in two

The lady's with me now since I showed her how
To lay her lily hand in mine
Loop and Lil agree she's a sight to see
And a treasure for the poor to find


—“If I Needed You,” written by Townes van Zandt, 1972, seen in a live performance in 1975, Townes Van Zandt - If I Needed You - YouTube


One of the more affecting films about grief, breaking it down into tiny fragments, where the film plays out like a memory play, as images sporadically hit the screen in what seems like no particular order at times, where the timeline is fractured, but events are recalled with significant impact.  Seen just a day or so after the death of legendary American folk singer Pete Seeger, this integration of music and message seems particular well integrated, where performance scenes of bluegrass music pop up throughout the film, where like a Greek chorus they mirror the emotional truth of the surrounding events.  While the Coen Brothers O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000) may have been a manic romp through the American South during the Great Depression, where the movie was responsible for a bluegrass revival in America, this European film takes its cue from the highly successful musical format of blending bluegrass performance footage into the storyline.  In fact, this film draws upon a series of films, in particular John Carney’s ONCE (2006), where the music becomes the heart and soul of a budding romance that develops onscreen, beautifully expressing the fluctuating moods of the characters.  But it also follows familiar patterns set by various films like the grief stricken parents in RABBIT HOLE (2010), or the public marriage challenges facing Johnny Cash and June Carter Cash when performing onstage in WALK THE LINE (2005), and even the nightmarish descent into a kind of Hellish mindset of REQUIEM FOR A DREAM (2000).  It’s interesting that the Coen brothers set a production standard of meticulous perfection when it comes to lip-synching, including their current film Inside Llewyn Davis (2012), but this is one of the noticeable deficiencies of this film, a minor blip in a film that otherwise has excellent production values. 


Based upon the play The Broken Circle Breakdown Featuring The Cover-Ups Of Alabama, written and initially performed by the two leads, Johan Heldenbergh and Mieke Dobbels, NL Trailer The Broken Circle Breakdown featuring the Cover-ups of Alabama YouTube (3:36), where Heldenbergh reprises his role as Didier, a former punk rocker who falls in love with bluegrass country music, while Veerle Baetens replaces Dobbels as Elise, his blond, heavily tattooed love interest.  With much of the film told out of time, and in flashbacks, the basic boy meets girl scenario goes through various progressions, where from the outset, after a rousing rendition of “Will the Circle Be Unbroken” to start the film, where banjo playing Didier is indistinguishable from any of the other heavily bearded men in the group, one of whom is the straggling looking Jan Bijvoet from Borgman (2013), but then we see him as part of a couple caring for their 6-year old daughter Maybelle (Nell Cattrysse) at the hospital with chemotherapy before flashing back to the surging love of how they originally meet and get married.   Didier lives alone in a trailer on a farmhouse outside Ghent, balancing his time between heading a bluegrass band and fixing up the farm, which goes into overdrive when he meets Elise.  Didier loves not only bluegrass, but America, considered a “country of dreamers,” where Elise appropriately enough surprises him with a red, white, and blue American decorated bikini, where their love scenes are erotically charged, but their music is equally enthralling, as Elise joins the band and sings lead, THE BOY WHO WOULDN'T HOE CORN - The Broken Circle | 2013 Official [HD] YouTube (2:33).  But this budding love, culminating in a marriage ceremony performed by a horrible Elvis impersonator, is doused with the tragic realization that their young daughter has leukemia, and while the prospects initially look encouraging, she doesn’t respond well to any of the treatment, where the emotions range from the jubilantly hopeful “The Lion Sleeps Tonight,” where the band amusingly greets her back home after her first round of chemotherapy, to an utterly sorrowful and haunting rendition of “Wayfaring Stranger” Veerle Baetens in The Broken Circle Breakdown YouTube (2:43), where nothing can be more heartbreaking than to sit helplessly and watch your child die. 


Certainly one of the strengths of the film is the aching authenticity between the two lovers, who are obviously smitten with one another, where there’s not an ounce of artifice between them, but they are also irreparably damaged by such an impactful loss, where they literally can’t find the words to fill the vacuous hole in their lives, so they begin blaming themselves and each other, fumbling to make some sense out of the situation, unable to fathom who they are anymore and unable to regain their emotional trust.  Continuing to tell the story in a nonlinear fashion, where wide gaps are missing, but later on the missing pieces are filled in, as the ebb and flow of the storyline is perhaps best expressed by the musical interludes that provide key emotional truths.  No musical number is more emotionally charged than a beautiful duet onstage between Didier and Elise singing If I Needed You - Johan Heldenbergh & Veerle Baetens - The ...  YouTube (3:22), the point where everything shifts in their relationship as the two lovers are moving apart, where Didier is desperately reaching out but Elise is uncomfortably retreating, an awkward moment where the overriding grief and pain is transparent, yet it’s probably the most telling moment in the film.  With his world torn apart, Didier has one of those embarrassing Ronee Blakley moments from Robert Altman’s NASHVILLE (1975), where he has a meltdown onstage, erupting in a belligerent rant that is sure to have drawn boos, but here the audience remains politely hushed and allows the performer to hang himself onstage.  It’s an off-putting moment, as this man who has drawn sympathy throughout has suddenly gone over the edge, taking a headlong plunge into hysteria.  It’s an interesting choice, as Didier, for all practical purposes, is the emotional anchor of the film, while Elise commands the screen much like Nicole Kidman in RABBIT HOLE, where she is allowed to drift off into the mystical realms for comfort, and the audience continually sympathizes with her distraught anguish and despair.  There’s nothing sugar coated or sentimentalized here, but there are moments that feel all too calculated, nonetheless, these two leads display an infectious chemistry, becoming overly familiarized, where the skewed editing technique actually elevates the emotional drama, providing that needed transcendence by the end.     

Felix Van Groeningen, film director:
Didier and Elise play in a bluegrass band and that is no accident.  Bluegrass is integrated in a variety of ways into the story and forms the intrinsic link between all the main issues that appear in the film.

We have tried to let the songs find their spot in the scenario in a more organised manner and by doing so, give them the greatest possible dramatic impact.  Sometime a song is purely narrative and helps to tell the story... In other places, we select a given song because it underpins the emotions.

The Broken Circle Breakdown : The New Yorker  Anthony Lane

By rights, this should be the most annoying movie of the year. A tattooist (Veerle Baetens) falls in love with a banjo player (Johan Heldenbergh), they have an adorable daughter (Nell Cattrysse), who is stricken by cancer, there is a ruinous scene in which our hero halts in mid-concert and starts ranting about stem-cell research, and the whole thing has been put through a chronological blender, so that we never stay still in time. And yet, from all this, the director Felix Van Groeningen has created something not just plausible and affecting but sharp and alert in its distress. The two leads throw themselves into the emotional mix, and the music that they make—both of them sing, in English, with the band that supplies the movie’s title—feels less like a backdrop and more like the essential binding of the tale. For any viewer who, for one reason or another, has been shamefully ignorant of Belgian bluegrass, here is your opportunity to make amends. In Flemish.

Reel Film Reviews [David Nusair]

The Broken Circle Breakdown details the relationship between a fledgling bluegrass singer (Johan Heldenbergh's Didier) and an impulsive tattoo artist (Veerle Baetens's Elise), with the movie, which unfolds in a non-linear fashion, exploring the pair's initial coupling and their eventual efforts at coping with their child's health concerns. Filmmaker Felix Van Groeningen does a superb job of immediately drawing the viewer into the deliberately-paced proceedings, as the director, working from a script cowritten with Carl Joos, has managed to transform the movie's two central characters into intensely compelling and thoroughly sympathetic figures - with this vibe heightened by the stirring performances from both Heldenbergh and, particularly, Baetens. It's clear, too, that The Broken Circle Breakdown is often a far more emotionally devastating piece of work than one might've initially anticipated, as the narrative's decidedly downbeat nature is heightened by Van Groeningen's unflinching treatment of the material. There's little doubt, however, that the film does start to lose some momentum once it passes a certain point, with the inclusion of a few questionable scenes and sequences - eg Didier unleashes a virulent rant during a concert - resulting in a final half hour that feels somewhat padded out. The movie recovers with a powerful and palpably heartrending closing stretch that more than compensates, which ultimately confirms The Broken Circle Breakdown's place as a difficult-to-watch yet thoroughly rewarding foreign drama. (Oh, and the bluegrass music sprinkled throughout is awfully good, too.)

The Broken Circle Breakdown / The Dissolve  Keith Phipps

Sometimes a shot early in a film doubles as a signpost, announcing what kind of movie it is, and where it will go. The Broken Circle Breakdown, Belgium’s submission for Academy Award consideration this year, contains one such shot—a young girl’s arm as she receives an injection in a hospital—that seems to reveal the path ahead. But while it isn’t entirely inaccurate, it’s a blurry signpost in a movie that knows exactly where it’s going, but doesn’t want to share the destination too soon. The movie is a heartbreaker, but not the sort of heartbreaker the image suggests. Or at least not just that.

The film began as the play The Broken Circle Breakdown Featuring The Cover-Ups Of Alabama, written and originally performed by Johan Heldenbergh and Mieke Dobbels. Here, Heldenbergh reprises his role as Didier, half its central couple alongside Elise (Veerle Baetens). After an opening musical number, director Felix Van Groeningen first shows them caring for their daughter Maybelle (Nell Cattrysse) in 2006, when they learn she needs chemotherapy. From there, the film takes its first narrative leap, flashing back to 1999. Didier lives alone in a caravan outside Ghent, near a beautiful farmhouse that’s fallen into disrepair. He’s a former punk who’s fallen in love with country music, as former punks did for a while in the ’90s, but he’s fallen just as hard for Elise, a tattoo artist with delicate features and a body that doubles as an advertisement for her craft.

From there, the film flits across the timeline of their relationship, showing their marriage, their united front as they support Maybelle during chemo, their initial apprehensiveness at learning they’ll be parents, and later, their fracturing lives at the other end of Maybelle’s illness. Van Groeningen brings a graceful touch to the editing, letting one moment comment on another without overdoing the connections. At its best, The Broken Circle Breakdown has the feel of life as it’s remembered—moments out of time tethered together by the feelings of those living them.

The performances capture that feeling, too. Heldenbergh and Baetens play Didier and Elise’s story as that of lives meshing together, initially thanks to Didier’s infectious enthusiasm for music and Elise’s infectious enthusiasm for life itself, and then through their love for their daughter. Underscoring it all: the music, an alternately rollicking and heartbreaking selection of bluegrass songs performed by Heldenbergh, Baetens, and the actor/musicians playing the members of their band, which finds a growing following as the film’s timeline progresses.

The film expertly weaves all those disparate elements together until, unfortunately, it seems to forget how. Grief flattens the characters. Didier becomes increasingly defined by his atheism, and Elise by her desire to believe. The back half of the film becomes dominated by heated exchanges that feel more written than lived, and moments that only underscore how many themes the film suggests without fully engaging. Beyond that conflict between belief and reason, The Broken Circle Breakdown touches on what it means for Europeans infatuated with American culture to live through the last decade, and for a man with no faith to sing songs of devotion.

Still, though it’s filled with missed opportunities, it isn’t defined by them. Van Groeningen brings a filmmaker’s eye to material that began onstage, making scenes set in the sun-drenched Flemish countryside and in cramped interiors feel equally cinematic. The cast matches his work, with Baetens and Heldenbergh creating a shared sense of history that elevates even some awkward later scenes, and everyone’s efforts feeding into an atmosphere of heightened emotion that starts with the film’s first scene and never really recedes, as Van Groeningen rides the crests and troughs of a love that may not survive the battering life hands it. Like one of the songs its characters perform, The Broken Circle Breakdown recycles some familiar material—young lovers, sick kid—but earns its heartbreak honestly.

Review: Surprising, Beautiful Berlin Film Fest Winner 'Broken Circle ...  Jessica Kiang

An immaculately observed, desperately moving story of love, loss, and bluegrass music, it's easy to see why Belgian film "The Broken Circle Breakdown" has been picking up awards: Best Actress and Best Screenplay from Tribeca and the Audience Award and the Europa Cinemas Award from Berlin. While Felix von Groeningen's film, which centers around a couple whose child is diagnosed with cancer, could easily have strayed into maudlin territory, the deft, non-chronological structure and the constantly surprising, beautiful performancesboth acting and the musicalelevate it well clear of any Movie of the Week associations.

Elise (Veerle Baetens) is a tattoo artist (boasting quite a bit of ink herself), into whose store one day strolls Didier (Johan Heldenbergh, also the co-writer of the play on which the film is based), a sort of Flemish cowboy who plays in a bluegrass band and has an unabashed love of Americana and a vehemently atheist philosophy. They fall in love, marry and Elise joins the band (which is populated by a kindly group of variously bearded men, one of whom is Jan Bijvoet, from our Cannes pickBorgman”), before discovering she is pregnant. After a brief rocky period, Didier comes to terms with imminent fatherhood, frantically doing up the farmhouse he owns to make it fit for a new family, and Maybelle is born. Their halcyon existence is splintered, though, and then slowly exploded, following the discovery that Maybelle (Nell Cattrysse) has cancer, and interminable rounds of chemo begin.

Again we understand how, told in bare chronological outline, it might seem like the film is that overfamiliar form of tragedy porn which layers on the pathos in its inevitable downward trajectory toward miserabilism. But the brilliance of Van Groeningen's approach is in the assured and fluid way he cuts around in time, not so much back-and-forth as elliptically loop-the-looping, telling the stories of, roughly, three different time periods. He proves himself a master of counterpoint, editing the sad scenes of the parents’ hospital visits right up against scenes that show the first flush of giddy love between the two: the result is to make the highs higher and the lows lower by contrast and it is devastatingly effective. It put us much in mind of Derek Cianfrance's "Blue Valentine" in that changing the manner in which the story is told in time also changes the tone of the film overall, making sometimes surprising connections that provoke more complex and nuanced thoughts and emotions then a more linear telling ever could.

Very occasionally, though, the juxtaposed chronology becomes muddled, especially toward the last third of the film when the third time period "strand" is introduced. In fact this portion of the film does prove the most problematic, with the film’s characters once or twice resorting to speechifying to lay out a little too clearly the subthemes. It’s a pity because the subtler way those undercurrents had been handled to that point (largely to do with Didier becoming ever more ferociously anti-religious while Elise starts to find comfort in a kind of undefined spirituality) had proved one of the film’s great strengths: where a lesser movie might concentrate solely on the character’s emotions, this one wants to deal with tragedy’s effect on their ideals too. The impulse, however, is noble even if the execution has uncharacteristically clumsy moments later on: Van Groeningen shifts the nexus of the film’s tragedy away from Maybelle (hard to do as a sick child will always exert a gravitational pull on our emotions), and onto Elise and Didier as they lose first each other, and then perhaps themselves. It’s a mark of how much these two fine actors have made us care for their characters that we feel those losses as deeply as we do anything else.

And of course, there’s the music. The soundtrack has apparently been a bestseller in Belgium where the film has already had a very successful run, and it’s not hard to see why. The original bluegrass songs, composed by Bjorn Eriksson, are by turns haunting and jaunty, and again, Van Groeningen uses them to sometimes complementary and sometimes contrasting effect. But whether it’s a ballad of loss and sadness or a more honky-tonk tongue-in-cheek barnstomper, the two actors, whose singing voices are terrifically well suited to the material, find a harmony that adds further layers to our understanding of their relationship. Really, we fall in love with them a bit.

We’re not too proud to admit we cried, more than once and less than tidily, and at sometimes odd junctures: the world’s most poignant rendering of “The Lion Sleeps Tonight,” the striking up of an almost shockingly upbeat tune around a certain hospital bed; and simply the saddest, most grief-ridden but loving sex scene we’ve seen in a long time. There’s no escaping that the film will jerk tears, but it doesn’t deserve the pejorative label that might suggest—there may be some stumbles but in broad strokes, Van Groeningen seems to innately understand that sorrow truthfully communicated and shared can be cathartic, rather than depressing. The song may be sad, but when we're invited to join together in raising it, it can lift our hearts even as they are gently broken. [B+]

Film of the week: The Broken Circle Breakdown | BFI  Gilda Williams, November 2013


Videophiled: 'Inside Llewyn Davis' Folk and 'The Broken Circle ...  Sean Axmaker from Parallax View, March 11, 2014


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Filled with Excess, The Broken Circle Breakdown ... - Village Voice  Jon Frosch


PopMatters [Piers Marchant]


Film Freak Central Review [Walter Chaw]


Cinemablographer [Pat Mullen] [Melina Gills]


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The Broken Circle Breakdown - Combustible Celluloid  Jeffrey M. Andersom


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'The Broken Circle Breakdown,' by Felix van Groeningen - NYTimes ...  Manohla Dargis


Van Hees, Peter


LEFT BANK (Linkeroever)                                   D                     59

Belgium  (102 mi)  2008  ‘Scope

You could probably make several new films just out of the loose ends left by this movie, as it’s not exactly a taut thriller, instead it’s a film that changes course midstream and becomes less about the attractive young lead actress, Eline Kuppens as Marie, whose fresh exuberance dominates nearly the entire length of film time, and more about the weird circumstances regarding the disappearance of a young girl who lived in the same apartment in a high rise building built on the Left Bank, a place just outside Antwerp where exiles lived in medieval times.  Early on we see eerie dream sequences that appear to be premonitions, though they are continually ignored up until the end, as in an introductory sequence Marie is wandering around a filthy basement wearing a red dress, eventually walking into a pitch black crawl space, which is like entering through a keyhole.  Marie is a world class racer who is weeks away from running in the European track championship, as she qualified by coming in second in a preliminary round, but collapsed shortly afterwards.  Her diagnosis is an infection of her immune system mixed with a blood disorder, requiring plenty of tests and follow up rest instead of training.  She meets a young archer at the track, Matthias Schoenaerts as Bobby, a car salesman with bizarre Russian roots who convinces her to go out with him and in no time, she’s moved in with him.  For the most part she’s happy and they spend plenty of time making love, which is shown with a great deal of naturalistic nudity, though she soon notices weird people around the building, but pays them no mind.  She also takes a spill and has a horrible bloody gash on her knee that only seems to get more infected over time.  In one of her dreams, she appears to be running through a toxic waste zone, which could explain her health problems, but in another she finds an abandoned newborn baby which she suckles to her breast, with a quick image of a naked Bobby sucking as well, while in another she’s drowning down an oily sinkhole.  Despite occasional vomiting and the view that she might be pregnant, her blood tests throughout the film continue to be inconclusive. 

Like the still shots in Von Trier’s BREAKING THE WAVES (1996), this film has several pans overlooking the city at night, or other landscape shots which showcase a natural beauty, but there are also crevisses where an oily liquid is spewing up from out of the deep, or the lapping waves of grey, colorless water to counteract that beauty in a natural world.  Seemingly insignificant, Marie finds a letter addressed to a former resident of the apartment, someone she soon discovers has disappeared altogether without a trace, where a few of her things are still stored there, some of which suggest medieval pagan rites, including the sacrifice of a young girl.  When it was discovered that the building itself was built over a cesspool, the troubling signs start pointing to Von Trier’s THE KINGDOM (1994), an iconic TV mini-series about a haunted hospital with ghosts and a devil child.  But the film this most resembles is Roman Polanski’s ROSEMARY’S BABY (1968), eliminating all sense of well-earned character build up from the first half and veering slowly into the absurdity of ritualistic satan worshippers.  This move proves fatal, as the film spirals into utter nonsense, not that there aren’t such cults that could be living anywhere, but because the payoff to all the well crafted dream sequences is so lame and amateurish.  Not a single member of this group appears to have any brains whatsoever, yet we’re expected to believe they’ve outsmarted the police for years.  Based on what we see, leaving a trail of murders left and right, including the disappearance of several police officers while investigating this group, all signs would point to this group, yet nothing stops them.  The historical references to medieval darkness are fairly standard, with barely an ounce of supporting material, as are the actual satanic rituals themselves, which more closely resembles the actions of primitive cave dwellers.  Kuppens and Schoenaerts are a terrific pair of young lovers, but totally wasted in this occult ritual gone wrong movie.  

User comments  from imdb Author: Coventry from the Draconian Swamp of Unholy Souls

My beloved Belgium country hasn't got much of an impressive history when it comes to horror cinema, but at least there have always been enthusiast and visionary directors that tried to make a difference. Back in the 70's there was Harry Kümel (whose movies "Malpertuis" and "Daughters of Darkness" are highly desired and acclaimed cult-collector items nowadays), then there's Jan Verheyen (who also hosts horror movie screenings on Belgian TV) and since recently we have Pieter Van Hees. Van Hees is an extremely devoted fan of the genre, as it is illustrated in his absurdly grotesque and engrossing short movie "Black XXX-Mas" as well as in this slow-brooding and atmospheric thriller "Linkeroever". The title literally means Left Bank and refers to a very well known living area in Antwerp. It's a reputedly "troubled" area since the Middle Ages already, with dark historical secrets and mysterious inhabitants, and thus the ideal setting for a sinister story. Marie is a young and talented but introvert athlete who suddenly falls ill and gets forced to cancel her participation in a prominent European tournament. She moves in with her new boyfriend Bobby and, mostly out of boredom, begins to investigate the mysterious unsolved disappearance of the previous tenant. I don't want to reveal too much about the complex and extremely unsettling story, but the script hints at horrific elements such as human sacrifices, reincarnation, pagan rites, excommunication, witches and super massive black holes. "Linkeroever" is basically a typical folklore tale, but set in a present day social environment and decorated with style & content elements that are borrowed from similarly-themed international horror classics like "The Wicker Man", "Blood on Satan's Skin" and "Rosemary's Baby". Pieter Van Hees generates a depressing and constantly grim atmosphere through simple tricks (autumn weather conditions, pauperized living areas…) and patiently takes the time to unfold the story and draw detailed character portraits. The denouement isn't that difficult to predict – especially not when you have experience with occult horror – but it nevertheless evokes a handful of genuine chills and nightmarish afterthoughts. Considering the fairly low budget and overall tense ambiance of the film, you shouldn't hope for a lot of bloodshed, though. Van Hees could rely on a professional crew as well. The photography, editing and musical guidance are damn close to brilliant and, following good old Belgian traditions, the film contains several dared but tasteful and quintessential sex sequences. Eline Kuppens is simply fantastic in her screen debut and she carries the entire motion picture like it's the easiest job in the world. She's a natural beauty with the talent and perseverance to make it even in the international film industry. Kuppens receives excellent support from the handsome young actor Matthias Schoenaerts and a couple of Flemish TV-screen veterans like Marilou Mermans, Frank Vercruyssen and Sien Eggers. Recommended for anyone who can speak the language and fundamental viewing for all Belgian film freaks.

Eye for Film (Keith Hennessey Brown) review [4/5]  also seen here:  and here:  Picture Show Pundits [Keith H. Brown]

With a few notable exceptions, like Harry Kumel's magnificent lesbian vampire art piece Daughters Of Darkness, Belgium is hardly renowned for its horror cinema. Happily this feature from Pieter Van Hees, who earlier gave us the delightfully tasteless short Black XXX-Mas, proves that national stereotypes are there to be broken, with an intelligent occult mystery thriller that delivers T&A and shocks for the exploitation horror crowd and more substance for the fantastique and subtext inclined critics.

The story centres around Marie, a young Antwerp woman who has dedicated herself body and soul to qualifying for the European track running championships in Portugal. Her world then begins to fall apart as, following the qualifying heat, she collapses. The doctors indicate that she is suffering from iron deficiency - significantly her periods are irregular - and prescribe a month resting; going to the championships is out of the question.

Finding it impossible to stay cooped up at home with her mother, an ageing hippy type who runs a health food store, Marie spontaneously decides to move in with Bobby, an archer and used car salesman she met at the athletics park. They make love and Marie, living a life of not having to worry about what she eats, drinks, smokes or does for the first time, falls for Bobby.

Then Marie starts to uncover the secrets of the building, centring around the disappearance of the last inhabitant of the apartment, built on the Left Bank of the River Schelde atop a former dumping ground for the city's poor and diseased. But is it already too late.

Although the film features many images of Marie naked or in her underwear, almost as many as there are of her clothed, these prove as much naturalistic as voyeuristic and exploitative. I particularly appreciated the way in which, getting up in the morning after making love with Bobby for the first time, Marie didn't move to pull the covers over herself but instead just got out of bed naked and went about her business: for once we didn't get that Hollywood self-consciousness about the body, with those double-height sheets that conveniently cover up the same parts that were on display on screen only a few moments previously.

The horror, suspense and mystery elements could be described as reminiscent of Polanski - most obviously Rosemary's Baby and The Tenant - and The Wicker Man, all classics of realist / mundane horror, crossed with the more supernaturally inclined work of H P Lovecraft and his disciples (think “Black Goat of the Woods with a Thousand Young”). After an opening stinger we start off in the mundane world, before the gradual accumulation of little signifiers - flowers, Bobby's Ouroboros medallion, Marie's strange vaginal discharges and non-healing wounds - combines to build an atmosphere of mounting doubt, dread, paranoia and helplessness in the face of an ancient, unknowable evil.

This said, genre fans are likely to guess what's going on sooner that the characters, as when a sealed box labelled samh--n with two letters obscured crops up. Like everyone else they will still be wondering how it's all going to pan out, however.

This ending - which I won't spoil - itself proves vaguely reminiscent of Fulci's Lovecraftian masterpiece The Beyond, in which the heroes found themselves in flat landscape, devoid of detail bar the mummified corpses on the ground that revealed the space to extend in all directions and none, into infinity. While the same doesn't happen here, in line with the more earthly, maternal, circular and grounded approach that director Pieter Van Hees takes in contradistinction to The Beyond's transcendental, there's the same ambiguous sense Fulci spoke of - having neither a happy ending nor an unhappy one.

The filmmakers also keep you wondering about the characters and their motives throughout: if the references to the black hole as “the devil's vagina” (or c-word; seeing as vulgar / vulgate latin doesn't get the more vulgar English translation in the subtitles) are a by-now predictable invocation of monstrous feminine formulations for the critics to hang their theoretical hat upon, as is the invocation of the cellar as a womb-like space to be read through your favourite theory (my own would be Gaston Bacherlard's Poetics of Space) the way in they also play upon movie stereotypes of Russian migrants as gangsters, pimps and people-traffickers makes for a pleasing reversal or two.

Technically the film is well put together, with some nice use of contrasting techniques in Marie's dreams / nightmares and other subjective sequences, some of which accelerate into an impressionistic blur of fast cuts and camera movements. The scoring is also effective, being harsh and loud without adopting the nu-metal stylings that have marred so many recent Hollywood productions.

The performances also work, with newcomer Eline Kuppens making for a credible heroine even if some of the things Marie does do not quite convince, while Mattheas Schoenarts giving Bobby a convincingly attractive bad boy air. The supporting players exude an air of authenticity: if these are black magic cultists, then they look just like your friends and neighbours, being downright average in every other respect.

User comments  from imdb Author: Dries Vermeulen ( from Brugge, Belgium

Though the Brussels Fantastic Film Festival is renowned worldwide, Belgium has never had much of a horror tradition, occasional excursions like Harry Kümel's gruesome twosome DAUGHTERS OF DARKNESS and MALPERTUIS notwithstanding. Unlike neighboring country the Netherlands, whose recent spate of splatter offerings cheerfully cannibalized American genre products, my homeland's modest attempts are closer in spirit to what the French categorize as "le fantastique", eerie tales of events that defy explanation that creep under your skin and haunt you for days after-wards. Not to claim that we don't look for influences elsewhere, I will admit to a defensible degree of chauvinism in that Belgian filmmakers have incorporated them better into personal to the point of idiosyncratic narratives. Young director Pieter Van Hees made a splash with his mean-spirited short BLACK XXX-MAS, purposefully packing tons of extreme effects into its brief running time. If he were to extend that style to feature length, the results would be close to unbearable. Thankfully, LINKEROEVER proves a complete departure, taking its time to set up a recognizable situation with alarming elements seeping in from the edges. A directorial debut, the film came to pass as part of the TV-sponsored "Faits Divers" cycle which had until now limited itself to light comedies like VERLENGD WEEKEND or VIDANGE PERDUE and worthy social dramas like DENNIS VAN RITA or DE HEL VAN TANGER. Series producer Jan Verheyen is one of the keenest commercial minds in a country that still frowns upon such worldly preoccupations when it comes to art forms, preferring instead to keep its head solidly lodged up its rectum and lose money on endeavors no one but the most tragically hip care to see. Fortunately, the tide seems to be changing and thanks to the likes of Verheyen, whose movies actually make a profit thereby opening up possibilities for other talented filmmakers, our cinematic culture is being enriched and diversified, no longer a source of ridicule.

Getting off my high horse and back to LINKEROEVER, Van Hees has liberally borrowed elements from Roman Polanski's THE TENANT and ROSEMARY'S BABY, Robin Hardy's one-off THE WICKER MAN and the recent glut of J-Horror (DARK WATER especially) for a story that still manages to considerable feat of seeming authentic and somewhat unpredictable even to the seasoned viewer's eye. At least some of the film's success must be attributed to its location, the left bank of the River Schelde in Antwerp the title refers to. A place of seclusion in the Middle Ages for criminal and excommunicated elements of the thriving city, its quiet, almost desolate atmosphere could not be further removed from the metropolis's bustle to this very day. I used to have friends living there (a gay couple, one of them chairperson of the Lowlands Abba fan club, and like their idols since split up) and always felt it to be the ideal place to shoot a horror movie. Just a matter of time then. Driven track runner Marie (an astonishing performance by frequently nude – don't worry, it's justified ! – first time actress Eline Kuppens, whose radiant smile will remind you of Rachel McAdams) suffers an injury which forces her out of competition for a while and finds she has but little of a life outside of sports. Her dotty, health food store running mom (wonderful character actress Sien Eggers) means well but drives her up the walls so she seeks solace in a torrid affair with semi-accidentally met mystery hunk Bobby, played very well by handsome Matthias Schoenaerts, son of late local theater legend Julien. She moves into his apartment on the left bank and while all seems fine at first, matters grow progressively more disquieting when Marie learns that the flat's former owner disappeared without a trace and that her boyfriend's the head honcho of a Freemason type community that has been active since Medieval times called the Dragon's Guild. Their symbol is a dragon biting its own tail, which Bobby tellingly describes as "each beginning is a new ending" while you would logically expect it to be the other way round. Plagued by increasingly bizarre visions, some of them apparently involving a black well in the basement, Marie starts missing out on her period and her wound grows ever more grotesque…

Eschewing expected shocks for most of its running time, LINKEROEVER slowly initiates audiences into its outwardly normal but seriously askew universe through identification with its strong, sympathetic heroine. Secrets are never revealed to us before Marie learns of them, leading to an ending few will see coming. Speaking of which, and without giving away to much, this must surely be one of the most hauntingly beautiful codas in recent memory. Stubbornly refusing to make sense on a logical, cerebral level, it does so perfectly from an emotional point of view. What's more, with all the darkness that has preceded it, this actually lets viewers leave the theater with a strange sense of elation approaching happiness though this is by no means a traditional happy ending ! Did I arouse your curiosity ? Good ! Van Hees beautifully sustains the mood of impending dread by all means at his disposal. Cinematographer Nicolas Karakatsanis makes splendid use of the cloud-packed skies adding to the oppressive atmosphere in exquisitely effective contrast with the golden light that dominates the latter part of the picture. Music is sparingly and equally effectively employed, with a jarringly edited party sequence tearing your senses to shreds. As with everything else here, this aural and visual assault serves a definite purpose, to pull away all vestiges of the familiar for characters and viewers alike. In interviews, the director and his entourage have claimed this film as some sort of "dry run" for their upcoming DIRTY MIND with comedian Wim Helsen. If so, that should be awesome. A remarkably assured work, LINKEROEVER already stands as one of the finest films of 2008 right out of the gate.

Quiet Earth [Hal MacDermot]


Variety (Leslie Felperin) review

Van Looy, Erik

MEMORY OF A KILLER                            B+                   91

Belgium  (120 mi)  2003


Taut, suspenseful murder mystery, featuring an aging hired assassin, Jan Decleir, a Michel Piccoli look-alike, who is running against time from advancing stages of Alzheimer’s Disease, and, mysteriously, engages the aid of a police chief in his attempt to expose the nationwide corruption that appears to exist on every level.  Odd, that it would take the professionalism and expertise of a hired killer, but that’s the story, adapted by the director and Carl Joos from Jef Geeraerts’ novel.  What we see is an intriguing world of dirty cops within their own department maintaining their lies and deceptions even at the highest levels, creating dual stories of police investigating multiple murders as well as its own department balanced alongside the cool-headedness of a violent killer’s precise strategy to go after the money man who hired him in the first place after getting double crossed, sometimes forgetting what he’s doing in the middle of doing it, writing down needed information on his arm.  But make no mistake, what’s intriguing here is not the cops, but the killer, who we sympathize with from the opening scene when he’s pulled out of retirement in a lunch overlooking the gorgeous port of Marseilles to return to Belgium, a country he clearly hates.  But he appears to be an honest, honorable man within his profession, especially after he refuses to kill an abused 12-year old child prostitute who could testify against one of the country’s wealthiest families, but this man just happens to be in the assassination business, reminding me of the wit and intelligence of Max von Sydow in THREE DAYS OF THE CONDOR.  The smart young police chief, Koen de Bouw, has a nose for following leads, and is not afraid to piss off the non-cooperative hacks within the department who may be more of his enemy than this killer.  There’s terrific acting all around, and plenty of atmosphere, which only drags near the finale when it turns into a slo-mo Sam Peckinpaugh scenario that really didn’t work, as it may have worked better with crisp sound offscreen, as this is otherwise a surgically precise, well-constructed work.   

Van Peoples, Mario

BAADASSSSS!                               B+                   91


USA  (109 mi)  2003


From Roger Ebert’s Sweet Sweetback review:  “The original 1971 movie was scruffy and raw, the story of a man born in a brothel and initiated to sex at the age of 12, who grows up as an urban survivor, attacks two racist cops and eludes capture. That Sweetback got away with it electrified the movie's first audiences, who were intrigued by ad lines like "Rated X by an All-White Jury." Although it was not an exploitation film, it was credited by Variety with creating "blaxploitation," a genre that gave us Pam Grier, Shaft, Superfly and a generation of black filmmakers who moved into the mainstream.  That a big-budget action film is unthinkable today without a black co-star is a direct consequence of Melvin Van Peebles' $150,000 fly-by-night movie. "Sweet Sweetback" did astonishing business, proving that a viable market existed for movies made by, for and about blacks. When the movie opened at the Oriental Theatre in Chicago, the marquee proclaimed: "The Oriental is Yo-riental Now!"  
Interesting commentary on the initial stages of the black rights movement, shown through the experiences of Mario’s father, Melvin Van Peoples, who decides to make a film about a revolutionary black man who tries to free himself of the Man, SWEET SWEETBACK’S BAADASSSSS SONG, shot in 1971 on the fly with only a shoestring budget, as all the so-called movie studios reneged on their agreements and refused to finance the film.  However, once it was made, no movie theaters would show it, made even more difficult by its X-Rating, obtained through the mandatory white establishment studio system.  Mario plays his father, who is never seen until the very last shot at the end credits, cigar and all, in a somewhat fictionalized, partly autobiographical portrait of his life, not always flattering, examining what amounts to the roots of black independent cinema.  While Melvin couldn’t afford to pay any established stars, or anyone else for that matter, and nearly went blind shooting this film, Mario casts Nia Long as his wife, Joy Bryant as his star-crazed secretary, and Karimah Westbrook as his sassy, hippie-tinged, beautiful black star in his film, who was shot dancing nude on the opening day in order to convince the union that they were shooting a black porno film, which was beneath their interest.  It’s an interesting mix of social satire, some of which is hilarious, serious black history, and a behind-the-scenes look at how to shoot an independent film where you pretty much make up the rules as you go along.  All of it is an interesting compilation that is never boring, that literally shows the first blacks and Latinos working together on a movie set, “No crew has ever looked like this,” setting the stage for future films starring black men from the ghetto, such as SHAFT, which was initially set to star a white man as John Shaft.
Baadasssss!  David Denby from The New Yorker

In 1971, Mario Van Peebles's father, Melvin Van Peebles, made the X-rated blaxploitation movie "Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song," starring himself as a bordello stud performer who kills two white cops and manages to escape (the movie concluded with Van Peebles running endlessly across hill and dale). "Baadasssss!" is Mario's layered re-creation of the making of "Sweetback" and the convulsive life around the production, which became a sizable hit. He plays his father, appropriating Melvin Van Peebles's body, his attitudes, his actions, and his treatment of his family (i.e., Mario himself, as a thirteen-year-old boy). The result is a complex homage: Mario turns his father into a sly, guarded, egotistical son of a bitch who nevertheless had to be that way to get the movie made; and he tries, at the same time, to top him as a filmmaker and a human being. The movie captures some of the manic desperation and easy pleasures of the period—the tumbling-into-bed sex as well as the crummy self-delusions by which people having a good time convinced themselves that they were making a revolution. The movie quickly reaches a pitch of manic activity and stays there for its entire length. It's an exhausting, and exhaustingly pleasurable, entertainment. 

“I want to show all the faces that Norman Rockwell never painted.” -- Melvin Van Peebles

Baadasssss!  Michael Sicinski from the Academic Hack

Or My Old Man Can Lick Your Old Man and the Whole Motherfucking System Too. There's a compelling tension at work in Baadasssss!, one that ultimately overcame my reservations about the project. It's a film about filmmaking as radical racial politics, 70s style, filled with manic energy and black-cowboy bravado (Melvin describes Sweetback as a "ghetto Western," and the same could be said of this film), and no small amount of macho posturing. And yet there's an undercurrent of tenderness, emanating both from the production's homemade, hand-crafted feel (the most traditional-looking scenes, like the poolside meeting with Adam West, ironically look more porno than Sundance), and from the sheer conviction of its intra-familial mythmaking. Yes, Melvin Van Peebles' film changed the face of cinema in ways the white establishment still hasn't fully acknowledged. (It should be regarded as a touchstone equal to Easy Rider.) But the power of Baadasssss! stems less from its film historical counter-narrative and more from the complex, heartfelt tribute Mario constructs by stepping into the old man's shoes, chomping his unlit cigar, and trying to re-envision his own childhood with the benefit of maturity and understanding. (In this regard, the film resembles Makhmalbaf's A Moment of Innocence.) Mario lived through the dress rehearsal so he could give Melvin his close-up.

Introduction  BFI Screen Online

Mario Van Peebles stars as his charismatic father, showing Melvin Van Peebles' increasingly desperate attempts to make his pioneering film 'by any means necessary'. A triumphant evocation of the tough, uncompromising world of guerrilla film-making, Baadasssss! shows us what one black man had to do to put put the 'hood' into Hollywood. Set against the backdrop of the Vietnam War, Woodstock, hipsters, hustlers, free love, afros and funk music, it is a hilarious yet considered portrayal of a seismic period in history following the assassinations of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King.

The year was 1971 and Melvin Van Peebles had had 'enough of the Man': while most scripts portrayed African-Americans as helpless slaves or 'super-Negroes', Melvin pitched to Hollywood a celebration of urban black power - the story of a black street hustler turned revolutionary who goes on the run after killing two racist cops. Hollywood wasn't ready, but Melvin wasn't in the mood to give up. Van Peebles Senior raised a shoe-string budget from friends and contacts (including Bill Cosby) and shot the film in 19 days. In order to secure a multi-ethnic crew, he had to disguise the production as a porn flick, thereby dodging the all-white unions. He even had to bail out his camera crew after they were arrested because a white cop decided that a 'bunch of negroes and hippies couldn't have come by that camera equipment honestly'. Despite death threats and losing the sight of one eye, Melvin managed to lick his crew into shape and persuaded a young band looking for a break, Earth, Wind & Fire, to record a soundtrack. At the film's completion he had just $13 to his name, and only two theatres in the US agreed to play it. Opening weekend bombed, but the film was declared to be required viewing by the Black Panthers whereupon students, Yippies and Hippies flocked to see it, making Sweetback the top grossing indie of 1971 (outperforming Love Story). Its success caught Hollywood off guard, forcing the studios to rethink black audiences and paving the way for an entire new genre: Blaxploitation.

One of those who saw it first time round was Michael Mann on a first date with his wife-to-be, Summer. And thirty years on it was Michael Mann who, in the words of Mario Van Peebles, "was the one cat that got the (Baadasssss!) script", going on to become the film's executive producer. Shot in only 18 days (one less than Sweetback itself), the result is a critical yet affectionate tribute from a son to his father - an honest, unhagiographic portrayal of a singleminded film-maker who let nothing stand in his way. Above all, it illuminates a vital chapter in film history, reflecting a key moment in Black America's battle for cinematic representation.

BAADASSSSS!   Ed Gonzalez from Slant magazine

“You Bled My Momma. You Bled My Poppa. But You Wont Bleed Me." This was one of many ad quotes celebrating the politics and box office perseverance of Melvin Van Peebles's Sweet Sweetback's Baadassss Song in 1971. Shortly before Columbia's Watermelon Man ("The Uppity Movie") hit the big screen, Melvin was asked by a Hollywood suit to deliver a comedy for his next project. With a three-picture deal within reach, Melvin decided he wasn't going to play nice for the Man. Instead, he played honest, creating a film outside the studio system—by black people, for black people, about black people. Some 33 years after the release of the film, his son Mario Van Peebles writes, directs, and stars (yeah, that's right: like father, like son) in BAADASSS! (a.k.a. Gettin' the Man's Foot Outta Your Baadassss!), a deeply personal tribute to the man who almost single-handedly changed the way black Americans were represented in film.

BAADASSSSS! is a celebration of Melvin's struggle to make Baadassss Song on his own terms despite an endless string of financial and personal mishaps. Playing Melvin in the film, Mario taps into the madness that drove his father to re-politicize the way blacks were consumed on screen. Mario's performance is a remarkable one, and it's all over the way he mimics Melvin's cock-of-the-walk; though Mario is clearly in awe of his father's success, he understands that some of that madness was self-hatred disguised as narcissism. The über-documentary interviews definitely messes with the narrative groove of the film, and though Mario's surrealistic flourishes are awkward at best (in a Lynchian blue room, the past and present freely intersect), the many schizoid interludes (rainbow-streaked mainlines between reality and wish-fulfillment) suggest that Baadassss Song was a kind of personal exorcism for Melvin.

According to Mario's film, Baadassss Song was born from a fever dream his father had in the desert. We're meant to think of Easy Rider as Melvin and young Mario (Khelo Thomas) ride through the desert landscape: that image of Peter Fonda and Dennis Hopper blasting their way through America with nothing on their minds but fucking and getting high. Released in 1969, Hopper's film is never mentioned in BAADASSSSS!, but its specter is still there—in the red-white-and-blue helmet Melvin wears on his head, right down to the way he cradles his prized bike. Mario means to distort an image of white identification. These images aren't about two white guys on motorcycles aimlessly looking for America; it's about a black man and his son passionately and desperately looking to reinvent the same place, possibly even own it.

"Good things do not come to those who wait," declares producer Jerry Gross (Vincent Schiavelli) during the film's opener, a platitude Melvin lives by and is seemingly willing to die for. It's a mantra that could also apply to his relationship to his son. There's something meta about Mario playing Melvin and acknowledging all the hurt exchanged between the two during the making of Baadassss Song. Against all odds, Melvin made his movie, and though his near-silent relationship to his son bordered on the grotesque (he cast him as a younger version of himself in his film, where he loses his virginity to a loose woman), you get a sense throughout BAADASSSS that Mario understands that in order for Melvin and Mario to identify themselves as Dad and Son, Baadassss Song needed to be made. In forcing that film to happen, not only did Melvin get to offer something real to the black community, but he also perpetuated a real connection to his son. That's honesty.

Van Peebles, Melvin

Director bio  The Black List Project 

Melvin Van Peebles was born August 21, 1932. He is an American actor, director, screenwriter, playwright, novelist and composer. He is most famous for creating the acclaimed film, Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, which heralded a new era of African American focused films. He is the father of actor and director Mario Van Peebles.

Van Peebles was born Melvin Peebles in Chicago, Illinois. He joined the Air Force thirteen days after graduating from Ohio Wesleyan University, staying for three and a half years. He lived in Mexico for a brief period, earning a living by painting portraits, before coming back to the United States, where he started driving cable cars in San Francisco. He began writing about his experiences as a cable car driver. What evolved from an initially small article and a series of photographs was Van Peebles' first book, The Big Heart.

After Van Peebles completed his first short films, he took them with him to Hollywood in order to try and find work, but was unable to find anyone who wanted to hire him as a director. In New York City, Van Peebles met a man who saw his films and wanted to screen them in France.

In France, Van Peebles learned the language and was hired to translate Mad magazine into French. He began to write plays in French, utilizing the sprechgesang form of songwriting, where the lyrics were spoken over the music. This style carried over to Van Peebles' debut album, Brer Soul.

In 2005, Van Peebles was the subject of a documentary entitled How to Eat Your Watermelon in White Company (and Enjoy It). In 2008, Van Peebles completed the film Confessions of a Ex-Doofus-Itchy Footed Mutha, and appeared on All My Children as Melvin Woods, the father of Samuel Woods, a character portrayed by his son, Mario. Van Peebles' next project will be a double album with Madlib, to be released on Stones Throw Records. The first disc of the album will be Brer Soul Meets Quasimoto and the second disc will be the Madlib Invazion remix. Madlib had previously sampled Van Peebles heavily on both of his albums under the Quasimoto moniker.

Melvin Van Peebles  bio from NNDB

Melvin Van Peebles says he was disgusted more than "inspired" to make films -- disgusted by not seeing any representations of black people in screen that seemed at all like black people he knew in life. Generally thought of as a film director, Van Peebles is also a screenwriter, actor, composer, playwright, novelist, and painter. He was the first African-American to work as a trader on Wall Street, and later started his own investment firm.

He was born Melvin Peebles, raised in Phoenix, and earned a Bachelors' degree in English Literature before enlisting in the Air Force in 1954, where he served as a navigator and bombardier. On leave, he married a white German woman moved to Mexico with her, where he worked as a portrait painter. Eventually they relocated to San Francisco, where he worked as a gripman on cable cars, and wrote a children's book titled The Big Heart. In 1959, he moved with his wife and two children to Holland, where he busked, studied astronomy, and began making short films. To symbolize his break from America, he Dutched his name, becoming Melvin Van Peebles.

Eventually, his marriage dissolved, and his wife and children returned to America. On the strength of his short films, the director of Cinémathèque Française invited Van Peebles to come to Paris, where he spent several years performing, worked as a reporter (interviewing Malcolm X), and wrote several novels in French. The French government offers underwriting to films that are "artistically valuable, but not necessarily commercially viable", and Van Peebles applied for such a grant to film one of his novels, La Permission.

Retitled The Story of a Three-Day Pass, it was his first feature-length film, telling the story of a black American soldier who is promoted for being "trustworthy", and given three days off duty in Paris. Written, scored, and directed by Peebles, the film is a romantic comedy with biting racial undertones, filmed in black-and-white. Three-Day Pass earned Van Peebles a contract with Columbia Pictures, and a ticket back to America to make his next film.

In Watermelon Man, Godfrey Cambridge played a racist white insurance salesman who wakes up black one morning. Cambridge's character is forced to experience the prejudice he has himself long espoused, but Peebles presents this object lesson as a comedy. Watermelon Man earned a respectable take at the box office, especially considering its controversial subject matter.

Van Peebles was now ready to make his landmark film, Sweet Sweetback's Baad Asssss Song. His script told the story of a male prostitute -- "Sweet Sweetback" -- who sees police beating a black activist, and intervenes. It isn't clear whether Sweetback kills the policemen or merely beats the hell out them, but Sweetback spends the rest of the screenplay on the run, having explicit sex with every woman he meets along the way.

Not surprisingly, Columbia Pictures was not interested in making Baad Asssss, so Van Peebles used his substantial Watermelon paycheck to leverage financing for his labor of love. To save money, Van Peebles played the lead himself, and the film was made without Screen Actors Guild certification, after Van Peebles told the union he was making a porn film. Baad Asssss was clearly a low-budget effort, shot guerilla-style over less than three weeks on location in some of Los Angeles' worst neighborhoods. It is an extremely ragged film, nowhere near as accomplished as Three-Day Pass or Watermelon Man, and almost unwatchable for present-day audiences accustomed to seeing professionally-made films.

Still, it was a remarkable film for its time. "Dedicated to all the Brothers and Sisters who have had enough of the Man", Baad Asssss made a statement that black audiences had never seen on the screen before. It showed minority life in a respectful light, reveled in its rage, and launched what came to be known as blaxploitation, the low-budget genre of black action films of the 1970s. Van Peebles was offered a substantial sum and a distribution deal if he would agree to edit out the last moments of Baad Asssss, but he refused. As a result, the film was rarely screened beyond theaters in black neighborhoods, and in many cities it played in porno theaters. But it earned more than $15 million, a huge amount for an independent film in that era, and Baad Asssss remains Van Peebles' most famous work.

After Baad Asssss, Van Peebles began writing plays. He was nominated for Tonys twice, for Don't Play Us Cheap and Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death. He wrote an early draft of the Richard Pryor film Greased Lightning, but was fired for "artistic differences." He provided the voice for Louis Armstrong in Satchmo, a PBS documentary, and played the bartender father of his son Mario Van Peebles' character on the TV series Sonny Spoon. He occasionally wrote teleplays for TV movies, and wrote the 1995 film Panther, based on his novel about the Black Panthers, and directed by his son.

In the 2003 film Baadasssss!, Mario Van Peebles played his father in the backstage story of how Sweet Sweetback's Baad Asssss Song was made. The film was based on Melvin Van Peebles' book.

Director site   Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death


Melvin Van Peebles - : : : :  another Director site


Melvin Van Peebles: How to Eat Your Watermelon in White Company  yet another director site


Melvin Van Peebles • Great Director profile - Senses of Cinema  Garrett Chaffin-Quiray from Senses of Cinema, March 21, 2003


Melvin Van Peebles's oral history video excerpts  biography from the National Visionary Leadership Project


MVP Foundation   Melvin Van Peebles Foundation


Melvin Van Peebles - Zimbio  central website for pictures, articles and links


Melvin Van Peebles - Filmbug   biography


Melvin Van Peebles - Overview - MSN Movies  biography | A soulful Tribute...    influential website


The Melvin Van Peebles Collection by Melvin Van Peebles - Rhapsody ...   musical downloads


Melvin Van Peebles | LifePart2 | PBS  (Undated TV clip)


Viddied Reviews  Alex Jackson essay on Watermelon Man from I Viddied It On the Screen (1970)


Original Review: 'Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death' (Oct. 21, 1971) [pdf]   Clive Barnes from The New York Times


A blaxploitation theater   Anatomy of a blaxploitation theater, by Demetrius Cope from Jump Cut, 1975


Blaxploitation’s high school audience   Blaxploitation films and high school youth, by M. Washington, M.J. Berlowitz from Jump Cut, 1975


Melvin Van Peebles: Original Notes In a Spare Space   Suzanne Slesin from The New York Times, February 18, 1988


Melvin Van Peebles Retrospective  Stephen Holden from The New York Times, June 22, 1990


FILM VIEW; Sweet Sweetback's World Revisited  Stephen Holden from The New York Times, July 2, 1995


POP REVIEW; A Down-Home Philosopher Makes Old Songs His Own  Jon Pareles from The New York Times, August 25, 1998


The Blaxploitation Era | Harvard Magazine January-February 2003   Craig Lambert from Harvard Magazine, January/February 2003


A Controversial Musical's Sweeet Comeback Song   Lola Ogunnaike from The New York Times, October 5, 2004


Spectacle, masculinity, and music in blaxploitation cinema   Amanda Howell from Screening the Past, July 14, 2005


Madlib & Melvin Van Peebles - Brer Soul meets Lord Quas | Stones ...    Stones Throw, October 1, 2005


The MVP of Black Cinema  Greg Tate from The Village Voice, January 10, 2006


Portrait of an Independent Spirit, Versatile and Baad   How to Eat Your Watermelon in White Company (and Enjoy It) (2005), A.O. Scott movie review from The New York Times, January 20, 2006


'Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death': Return of a Funky Assault on the Senses   Phoebe Hoban from The New York Times, May 25, 2006


The Spotlight Interview: Melvin Van Peebles  Omar P.L. Moore from The Popcorn Reel, February 12, 2007


melvin and me | Bryant Terry   April 2008


Van Peebles’s Street Serenade  Rachel Saltz from The New York Times, August 1, 2008


melvin van peebles – ISSUE Project Room   August 10, 2009


Happy Birthday, Melvin Van Peebles, Writer, Director and Actor   Sarah Amandolare from Finding Dulcinea, August 21, 2009


Melvin Van Peebles   brief book excerpts including a video interview from Good Day, NY, August 21, 2009


FilmInFocus | Film News | Melvin Van Peebles born Movie News ...   brief bio info, August 21, 2009


Melvin Van Peebles   Undated interview by Kam Williams from The African American Literature Book Club  


Evening with Melvin Van Peebles and Dick Gregory  Video interview with Melvin Van Peebles, May 23, 1974 (1 minute)


Charlie Rose - Melvin Van Peebles  60 minute TV interview by Charlie Rose, March 15, 1995


Melvin Van Peebles: Interview and biography   Melvin Van Peebles and His Pals, interview by Mike Zwerin from Culture Kiosque, August 9, 2002


Baadasssss! - Mario and Melvin Van Peebles Interview   January 22, 2004, on YouTube (7:31) 


"Legacy": Film Freak Central Interviews Baadasssss! Filmmakers ...   Walter Chaw interviews Melvin and Mario from Film Freak Central, June 6, 2004


Interview at  Interview by Daniel Robert Epstein, January 19, 2006


Red Bull Music Academy - Melvin Van Peebles - Session Transcript   Interview from the Red Bull Music Academy, Barelona, 2008, video interview may be seen here.


Melvin Van Peebles Talks about his new graphic novel and film ...   Interview by Felicia Pride from Books on the Root, June 3, 2009, also seen here:  The Itchyfooted Melvin Van Peebles | Blog | Felicia Pride


Melvin Van Peebles « The Michael Eric Dyson Show   Radio interview, July 16, 2009


A Living Legend Still Working Independently: Melvin Van Peebles ...   Wilson Morales interview from Black Voices on Movies, August 20, 2009


Flashback Fridays: Melvin Van Peebles -   Kenya N. Byrd interview from Essence magazine, August 21, 2009


TimeOut: Director interview   Taking Confessions, interview by Novid Parsi, from TimeOut Chicago, September 3 - 9, 2009 


Melvin Van Peebles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Melvin Van Peebles Pictures


X-rated movies, by Melvin Van Peebles  as a Channel 5 news guest commentator, 1985, DVD extra on YouTube (1:48)



USA  (9 mi)  1957


User comments  from imdb Author: pkael from Philadelphia, PA

Melvin van Peebles' first short is a deliberately aimless slice of life, mainly consisting of several men walking the streets of an American city. Most interesting aspect is the disjointed, atonal harmonica score. improvised by van Peebles himself. A small slice of this film can be seen (unidentified as such) in the documentary "What It Was... Is" on the Sweetback and Don't Play Us Cheap DVDs. Along with his first feature, Story of a 3-Day Pass, this movie shows that Van Peebles' roots were as much in European and "art" film as so-called "blaxploitation," and that the style of Sweetback was calculated primitivism, not merely inexperience.

THE STORY OF A THREE-DAY PASS (La Permission)      B                     83

France  (87 mi)  1968


Melvin Van Peeples is something of a living history of independent films, nearly single-handedly revitalizing the American black film movement of the late 60’s and early 70’s, where his self-financed classic SWEET SWEETBACK’S BAADASSS SONG (1971) opened the door for stronger and more militant black characters in film, while also offering opportunities behind the camera for directing as well both in television and the movie industry.  This earlier film would have to be described as a more whimsical Van Peeples, as he was still learning his craft.  To hear Peeples tell it, he was unable to find work after a brief stint in the Air Force flying bomber planes, so he worked as a gripman on cable cars in San Francisco, eventually writing a book about the experience, The Big Heart, in 1957, making several short films afterwards that in the mid 60’s caught the eye of Henri Langlois, founder of the Cinémathèque Française, who invited him to make films in France.  As there were no comparable opportunities in America, he joined several other American black artists that were also allowed greater freedom of expression in France through a racial tolerance that simply didn’t exist in the United States, like Josephine Baker, Richard Wright and James Baldwin, where Peeples taught himself French, actually wrote stories for a social activist newspaper there as well along with a few plays and novels, one of which, La Permission in French, was adapted into his first feature film, receiving a $60,000 grant from the French Cinema Center.  Shooting in 36 days for a cost of $200,000, the film reflects a bilingual sensibility, as several characters conveniently speak both.  The story concerns Turner (Harry Baird), a friendly black American soldier stationed at an Air Force base in France, where all things considered, it’s surprising Peeples didn’t play the part, as Baird has an un-American sounding accent from Guyana   The initial signs of self-deprecating humor are the conversations Turner has while looking in the mirror with his alter ego, who calls him a “good” Negro and an Uncle Tom, explaining how he was chosen for a recent promotion.  When we meet his captain (Harold Brav), a highly intense white man constantly on the verge of a breakdown, where everything must be exactly in place or he suffers from apoplexy, he describes Turner as a man he doesn’t have to worry about, rewarding him with an unheard of three-day leave.       


Overjoyed, Turner is off to Paris, where after visiting a carnival and a strip club he bashfully meets a similarly shy white French girl, Miriam, Nicole Berger, Charles Aznavour’s suicidal wife in SHOOT THE PIANO PLAYER (1960), over drinks in a dance club, where smiles and holding hands are their means of communication, but he’s amazed that she agrees to take a trip to the ocean in Normandy, staying together at a beachfront hotel.  Mind you, they’re afraid to even touch each other at first, as so much is swirling through their heads.  The moment they’re alone, however, their respective fantasies kick in, where Turner is a robust Three Musketeer figure cutting a manly figure on a horse as she’s waiting for him by the fire in his chateau, while she’s running through the jungle chased by black natives, where she’s presented as a gift to their handsome chief (Turner).  These humorous visions help cut the ice, using an overhead ceiling shot to reflect their awkwardness and distance.  When she excuses herself to brush her teeth, he goes through another half dozen changes of clothes, each with a different intentionally sophisticated look, like something seen out of Esquire or Playboy magazine, turning the bed down, then changing it back the way it was, all taking place in split seconds inside his head.  Their shy tenderness with each other is refreshing, where they obviously have respect, and things go pretty much they way they’d like, happy to be in each others arms.  At dinner, still holding hands, they’re always seen with a bottle of wine, initially eating Chinese, where the waitress yells out the order, amusingly interrupted by an oversized guest placed at their same table who orders a week’s worth of food.  When it’s a Spanish restaurant the next night, with a flamenco guitarist and dancer, everything appears friendly and nice, until Turner (in his head) hears a racial insult (that was never spoken), launching himself headfirst at the guitarist, burying his face with his fists, only to be pulled off the man and beaten to a pulp, seen limping down the street afterwards.  It’s curious how Peeples chooses to show racial antagonism, as something he carries around largely in his head, where it’s an ingrained and programmed response, as this overreaction is largely a riff on how the word “black man” sounds in French, as to Turner it just sounds insulting. 


When they’re alone, the couple couldn’t be happier together, but Peeples loves to show how attitudes change in the presence of others, altering how they are perceived, as not everyone approves of interracial couples, even in France, especially Turner’s over-demanding captain who reflects typical American bigotry.  While the two are enjoying a perfect day at the beach, a few fellow soldiers on leave interrupt their apparent bliss, as they are appalled at what they see, bringing American racial prejudice front and center into their otherwise happy lives, where Turner is quickly stripped of his promotion and confined to barracks until a traveling church choir from Harlem visit the base and they need a friendly black tour guide.  Peeples co-writes, with Mickey Baker, his own funky musical soundtrack, where the overt nature of the music offers a take on the character’s personality, a highly theatrical device used by Peeples, something more commonly seen in live theater.  Easily the highpoint of the film is when they finally consummate their sexual attraction, where 60’s newsreel style images flood the screen in a flash of quick cuts, offering a glimpse of the era in a mini-movie, offering a bit of social realism in what is otherwise a lighthearted romp through the French countryside, including a pastoral hayride with a friendly farmer more in harmony with nature who’s all too happy to chat with them.  While the film has a pronounced innocence and humor to it, mixed with a sprinkling of racist sentiments, it does play to stereotypes and can’t match the radical influence of SWEETBACK, which literally changed the look of cinema in America, allowing blacks to redefine themselves in a healthier image in a predominate white society.  SWEETBACK’S biggest influence on Hollywood was that it made money, opening a cash flow to blacks for a change, paving the way for more diverse films and attitudes to come.  This film earned Peeples a contract with Columbia Pictures and a trip back to America, where for a decade at least, blacks enjoyed their greatest success in the movie industry.  


User comments  from imdb Author: John Seal from Oakland CA

Burdened though it is by director Melvin Van Peebles typical editing foibles, Story of A Three Day Pass is nonetheless his greatest film, buoyed by superb performances by handsome Harry Baird, lovely doomed starlet Nicole Berger, and the unheralded Harold Brav as Baird's apoplectic commanding officer. A romantic comedy about love, racism and the United States Army, the film will raise you up only to drop you down, but it rarely resorts to cinematic cliche and will appeal to idealist and cynic alike. Beautifully shot by Michel Kelber, the film also features an absolutely top notch score which deserves some sort of recognition and is instantly atop my list of 'soundtrack most in need of a CD (re)issue'. Strongly recommended for all.

Baltimore City Paper (Bret McCabe) capsule review

Independent filmmaking vanguard Melvin Van Peebles didn’t arrive in American theaters fully formed with the one-two punch of 1970’s Watermelon Man and 1971’s Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song. He actually whet his cinematic chops with this French-made 1968 gem, which follows the various misadventures of African-American GI Turner (Harry Baird), who’s stationed in France and getting a three-day pass before being awarded a promotion. Turner heps it to Paris, where he gets absolutely mod in a pair of tapered slacks, plaid sport coat, porkpie hat, and dark black shades. He skims through the city alone for his first day, and meets the friendly, gamine Miriam (Nicole Berger) that night, and they decide to alight to the beach for two days of off-season sun, sand, and alone time and where they encounter some sidelong glances. Less a poignantly incisive race commentary than a lighthearted romp, Three-Day is most notable for Van Peebles’ nascent visual panache. You can see the director trying every idea in his head for his first feature, and it turns out some luscious results: Note the scene when Turner enters the Paris bar where he meets Miriam, and you can sense the germinating seed for one of Spike Lee’s signature stylistic tricks. The Story of a Three-Day Pass isn’t going to knock you over, but it’s refreshingly and lovingly of its time, a Paris-to-Normandy Shadows by way of Chappaqua.  Fernando F. Croce

Melvin Van Peebles had already toiled in a trade-hopping career (U.S. Air Force, painting in Mexico, crime reporting, acting, writing novels all over Europe) worthy of John Huston or Sam Fuller before he tried his hand at movies. His debut follows black American soldier Harry Baird as he savors his weekend pass after getting wind of a possible future promotion. Dashing off to Paris in hepcat suit, he ambles through strip joints and carnivals before bumping into white gal Nicole Berger at a go-go pub. Their interlude together, lilting and mutually liberating, inevitably veers from the idyll of beaches and hayrides to the coldness of the barracks when Baird's time runs out. If Sidney Poitier could barely hold hands with Katherine Hepburn that same year in Guess Who's Coming to Dinner, Baird and Berger got no problem going downtown, their zesty fucking intercut, with disarming crudeness, with war carnage newsreel footage. The taboo aspect of the romance is not far from the characters' own minds -- about to tumble, Baird imagines himself as an aristocrat riding home to his white mistress, while Berger fantasizes about being ravished by a tribe of Mau-Maus. Van Peebles' technical jaggedness, not yet elevated to the radicalism of Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, is waist-deep in nouvelle vague tropes: freeze frames, jump cuts, hand-held camerawork (including the floating first-person dolly that Spike Lee would later claim as his own), sudden flights of fancy, doting over its leading lady (the lively, doomed Berger, better known for taking a swan dive out a window in Shoot the Piano Player). In black and white.

Hammer to Nail [Brandon Harris]

In 1967, Melvin Van Peebles became the first African-American to direct a narrative feature film in twenty years, following DIY pioneer Oscar Micheaux’s final film, The Betrayal, with his Story of a 3-Day Pass (La Permission). Ironically, this stretch of time coincides with the era of studio decline that followed Hollywood’s golden years, starting roughly with the Paramount case in ‘48, which stopped the vertical integration of the movie studios, followed by the threat of television in the ‘50s, and ending with the emergence of the New Hollywood in the late ‘60s. The bigger, perhaps sadder irony is that this particular American black man had to go to France to become a movie director, using sheer guile and determination to tell a story that, while set among the French, takes on the anxieties of mid-20th Century American blackness with insight, humor, and genuine feeling.

Harry Baird, tall and stark, in turns morose and goofy looking, is Turner, a black American GI stationed in France. When we meet him, during the jazzy credit sequence that is the first of many indicators of this film’s debt to the waning French New Wave, he is the only remaining soldier in the barracks awaiting leave. He’s given a stern talking to by his commander, who reminds him of how they expect a colored soldier to behave on leave (i.e. no miscegenation) and is wearily given his three day weekend away from the army base.

Turner strolls the streets of Paris, battling the persistent loneliness and otherness that comes with the territory, venturing into bars and imagining the acceptance of any number of young women. He meets Miriam (Nicole Berger), a level-headed Parisian who seems to be all quick smiles and is willing to listen to and dance with Turner. A delicate courtship begins, one that quickly draws the ire of Turner’s fellow American soldiers on leave, locals familiar with Miriam and others unaccustomed to and hostile toward the presence of Negroes.

Story of a 3-Day Pass is Van Peebles’ most stylistically assured and emotionally satisfying film. There is a joy in the freewheeling aesthetic conceits. He unpacks scenes using highly subjective techniques like split-screen, subject-on-dolly moves, freeze frames, abrasive, looping musical interludes, and extended POV shots, allowing us to enter the world of Turner in a way he never again explored with such elegance. Relying heavily on direct address to the camera, Van Peebles finds a nice analog to the black suspicion of the white gaze—we constantly inhabit Turner’s perspective as people talk to him.

Van Peebles arrived in France in the early part of the decade, as the New Wave’s seminal films were finding their way to French audiences and around the world. One cannot understate the influence of those films on this picture (Nicole Berger, who died in a tragic car accident shortly after wrapping La Permission, plays Charles Aznavour’s suicidal wife in Shoot the Piano Player). But, as with Watermelon Man, in which he takes on the aesthetic (if not the thematic) characteristics of a mainstream American studio comedy, as well as Sweetback, in which the New American Cinema and Los Angeles Psychedelia of the late ‘60s are defining influences, Van Peebles proves with his first feature that he has always been a chameleon director, ever changing, never static in his approach nor afraid of a fight.

User comments  from imdb Author: Mike Nolan ( from Lake Arrowhead, California


All Movie Guide [Mark Deming]


TV Guide Online


The Story of a Three Day Pass (1968)  Renata Adler from The New York Times, also seen here:  New York Times





USA  (100 mi)  1970


Time Out review  Tom Milne

Cambridge plays (admirably) a high-powered all-American insurance salesman, bursting with health, dirty jokes, and bigotry, who wakes up one morning to find that his skin has turned black. His frenzied attempts to explain the metamorphosis as an excess of tan and/or soya sauce won't wash any more than his skin will, so he finds himself forced to adjust. Often very funny in its topsy-turvy comments on racism, the script unfortunately has to battle against a director determined to use every gaudy trick in the book. The real pity, though, is that it fails to follow through on the logic of its premise whereby the hero is so heartily extrovert that everybody (wife and kids included) dislikes him. When he turns black, he also turns sympathetic, so nobody's reflex responses are really tested.

The Onion A.V. Club [Nathan Rabin]

The story of a smug white insurance salesman who wakes up one day with black skin, 1970's Watermelon Man was originally planned as a vehicle for a white actor like Jack Lemmon or Alan Arkin. The film also originally featured an upbeat ending in which the salesman's stint as an oppressed minority is merely a dream, albeit the kind designed to teach Rod Serling-approved values of tolerance and equality. When Melvin Van Peebles came onboard as director, however, he transformed a white liberal morality play into a cinematic howl of rage. The result is a strange combination of sitcom and tragedy, black anger and sanitized shtick. The conflict between what Van Peebles was given and what he delivered gives the film a bracing, caustic tension that carries it through trying patches of hackneyed comedy, clumsy sermonizing, and cartoonish attempts at satire.

The film's degree of success stands as a tribute to the skill and comic chops of star Godfrey Cambridge, whose motormouth salesman comes off as simultaneously obnoxious and endearing, a self-infatuated predecessor to Ricky Gervais in The Office. Transcending mere caricature, Cambridge plays a reactionary suburban husband and father whose nonstop wisecracks annoy everyone around him, particularly his long-suffering liberal wife (Estelle Parsons). Only a sudden, radical shift in his racial complexion can crack Cambridge's bubble of self-absorption, forcing him to confront the inequities of the harsh outside world.

Intriguingly, Cambridge's sarcasm remains consistent throughout Watermelon Man, though its meaning and context changes drastically. As the film opens, it's the condescending humor of the complacent middle class sneering at everyone lower on the socioeconomic ladder. After Cambridge's racial alteration, it becomes the angry, defiant comedy of a member of the underclass using absurdity to survive oppression.

Watermelon Man grows bleaker as it progresses, pushed by Van Peebles' unhinged score, which asserts his personality and sensibility as strongly as his direction. "This ain't America, is it?" he howls mockingly on the soundtrack, as Cambridge endures one comic indignity after another. The film answers that question, arguing persuasively that racism and injustice are as American in their own way as any of the country's nobler values. The pounding prelude to a cultural and cinematic revolution, Watermelon Man nearly bubbles over with the rage that exploded outright with Van Peebles' follow-up, Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song.

not coming to a theater near you (Rumsey Taylor) review

Jeff Gerber, a financially secure, confident, and healthy white male, races the bus on his way to work. He meets it at its final stop before a highway, pays a reduced fare, championing himself among colleagues whose curiosity for this practice is equivalent to their annoyance. He is a deeply bigoted character. To Jeff, racial slurs may function as accepted titles, and racial differentiation is overtly evident to him, perhaps even necessary. Aptly, he is an insurance salesman. His is the art of bullshit and insincerity, and he’s very good at it.

Watermelon Man is ostensibly a comedy of contrived situations. The same concept has been repeatedly made, in which a bigoted man is forced (often through fantasy) to confront his racism. Watermelon Man, however, is hugely significant as the product of filmmaker Melvin Van Peebles. Though Van Peebles would achieve the position of an influential and important filmmaker with his subsequent effort, Sweet Sweetback’s Baad Asssss Song, this precursory film exhibits his polemics and interest in exploitation.

Jeff is introduced in a quick montage of frantic exercise. He has purchased a tanning bed, stretches a chest exerciser, and counts reps with concentrated speed. He is efficient and athletic. The next morning, he finds he has inexplicably morphed into a black man.

The comedic potential of this scenario is contrived to its very extent. However, I relent to isolate Watermelon Man strictly as a comedy; its premise is more valuable as a thematic exercise. It is not the most stalwart ethnological study of its time (it bows in comparison to something like To Kill A Mockingbird, eight years its elder), though it is significant for its heritage, its confrontation, and its violation of taboos. It is tame by contemporary standards, but there is a rough edge beneath the comedic façade, a desperation and anger.

Unexpectedly, once the comedy is spent, the finale of the film is dark, if not downright threatening (it is appropriately evocative of Sweetback’s final promise to The Man). It is a film made under the auspices of a predominately white industry that depicts a race which had been hitherto unrepresented in commercial film by an allied director. Van Peebles was enlisted to film a second ending (in which Jeff awakes, realizing his strife has been dreamed) which he refused to deliver, maintaining the purpose and integrity of his film. In this thinly-veiled manner, Watermelon Man is a bite at the feeding hand.

Jeff Gerber is angry not because of his mistreatment but because of his self-loathing. He has become the very source of his intolerance. It is the most fitting poetic justice that can be given to a racist character. This resolution is also quite disparaging as it denotes an inability to conform; by this measure, Watermelon Man is a timeless polemic.

User comments  from imdb Author: Brandt Sponseller from New York City

In Watermelon Man, director Melvin Van Peebles expresses complex ideas about race and racism in a sophisticated but humorous way. At that, however, if you do not have a strong taste for grotesques--in a formal sense ("outlandish or bizarre; ludicrous or incongruous distortion")--you may not enjoy the film as much as I did. It is something of a surreal, occasionally psychedelic caricature, but as such, it does what all good caricature should do--it emphasizes the truth without being strict realism or "naturalism".

Watermelon Man is the story of Jeff Gerber (Godfrey Cambridge). He's something of a strange dweeb who nevertheless has a stereotypical white-bread suburban existence. He's got a wife, two preadolescent kids, a nice home with a manicured lawn, and so on. He's also something of a health nut (although humorously, Cambridge wasn't exactly in great shape when they shot the film). As the film opens, he's busy exercising while his wife is trying to capture a few more minutes of sleep. He regularly uses a sun lamp. He takes the bus to his insurance salesman job, but instead of catching it right down the street, he races it through the neighborhood every day, the goal being to beat it to the last stop before it gets on the highway.

Jeff presents himself as happy-go-lucky and quite a joker, but he's a bit obnoxious and boorish, plus he shows himself to be racist and a male chauvinist, although he's not exactly gung ho about sleeping with his wife.

Just as we're learning about Jeff's routine, something unusual happens--he wakes up in the middle of the night as a black man. At first he thinks it's a nightmare, but it doesn't go away. He blames it on the sun lamp. He blames it on food he's ingesting. The bulk of Watermelon Man has Jeff trying to at first conquer, then later deal with his newfound "problem".

If you've seen both films, you might find it odd that Van Peebles made Watermelon Man before Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song (1971). Unlike Sweet Sweetback, which is intriguing in its own way, but not near as good of a film artistically and technically, the direction in Watermelon Man is finely nuanced and sophisticated, the cinematography is crisp and attractive and technical elements such as sound are superb. I suppose this might be an interesting lesson in how crucial budget and "legitimacy" can be for film-making. It gives access to the finest materials and resources, including a large stable of professionals with narrow specialties. At that, however, Watermelon Man is not nearly as respected now as Sweet Sweetback because of what Sweet Sweetback represents, both ideologically and influentially in the film industry. Sweet Sweetback was something of a revolutionary (and very psychedelic) cry for African-American rights, and it helped launch not only the blaxploitation craze of the 1970s, but also fiercely independent film-making.

Yet, Watermelon Man is just as unique and important in what it has to say about race, even if it's not violent or pornographic, and not bizarre in the same way. Once Jeff becomes black, everything about his life changes. There isn't a person around who doesn't relate to him differently, with many having a polar opposite reaction to him--both his white friends (and family, of course) and his black acquaintances (they weren't friends, exactly, when Jeff thought he was white). Everyone wants to exploit his newfound state, including his boss. Van Peebles makes a sly transition from the beginning to the end of the film that goes from white-bread sitcom to something of a militant blaxploitation flick in a way that you barely even notice.

A large part of what makes Watermelon Man so odd is Godfrey Cambridge. His performance is way over the top and consistently bizarre, but for some of us, in some contexts (such as for me in this context), this kind of bizarre, over the top material works extremely well--in fact, I tend to prefer this to realism. The other performances are at least interesting, even if they're not all good in a conventional wisdom evaluation, but Cambridge really carries the film.

Equally bizarre and a bit disturbing is Cambridge's make-up as a white man. The make-up is extremely well done--it's difficult to picture Cambridge as he really looks underneath it all, but given the character's disposition, Cambridge as a white man comes off as freakish to say the least.

Van Peebles' direction is extremely admirable. He's not afraid to take all kinds of thrilling chances, including such unusual moves as quick pans to go from character to character in a conversation and odd intrusions of psychedelia, such as the scene that suddenly starts flashing different negative exposure images, or the scene that stops to insert commentary that resembles silent film intertitles.

Van Peebles also did the music here, as he did in Sweet Sweetback, and it's just as weird. Near the end of the film, there's an extended version of a song that rips-off "Heard It Through The Grapevine" that features a vocal that even The Residents would raise an eyebrow to. Again, I love weird stuff, so I was happier than a pig in, um, mud.

If there's anything less than satisfactory about Watermelon Man, it's that it engenders sadness that Van Peebles wasn't able to talk the helm more often. He made a controversial move in this film by changing the ending in the original script, as he rightfully should have done (Columbia originally wanted an "it was all a dream" ending, which would have been ridiculous and insulting, to say the least), and that, combined with his independent production of Sweet Sweetback the following year, didn't exactly put him on Hollywood's successful brownnoser list.

Viddied Reviews  Alex Jackson essay from I Viddied It On the Screen (Mark Zimmer) dvd review


DVD Talk (David Walker) dvd review [4/5]


Stuff White People Do  Macon D, May 9, 2008


DVD Fanatic [Adam Rosenberg]


User comments  from imdb Author: definitedoll from East Windsor CT


TV Guide Online


Channel 4 Film capsule review


Godfrey Cambridge's 'Watermelon Man' Arrives at 2 Houses  The New York Times



USA  (97 mi)  1971

You bled my momma!
You bled my poppa!
(But you won’t bleed ME!)

Sweetback (Melvin Van Peebles)


Melvin Van Peebles exhibits his own kind of infectious joie de vivre, displaying an indomitable spirit that refuses to be deterred, an example being he felt tired of seeing black people show up at lynchings with a hymnal and a Bible, so he decided to do what he could to change people’s perceptions.  SWEET SWEETBACK was a film that in its day was endorsed by the Black Panther Party, analyzed from a revolutionary perspective by Huey P. Newton in the Panther newspaper, and at least according to Spike Lee, was extremely influential on today’s black filmmakers, including his ability to market himself. 


According to Joe Angio, the director of the Melvin Van Peebles documentary HOW TO EAT YOU WATERMELON IN WHITE COMPANY (AND ENJOY IT) (2005), he mentioned a story in a Q & A after the film about Melvin attending a college seminar with several other notables on cinema as art, where a young black man in the audience noticed how dark SWEETBACK was, how he didn’t use enough light.  Melvin indicated he took great pains to capture the look he was striving for, to which the young man commented he still thought it looked “fucked up.”  Melvin leaped off the podium into the audience and proceeded to punch the guy out.  An autobiographical note, I actually saw SWEET SWEETBACK’S BAADASSS SONG in New Orleans, of all places, when it came out.  I was the only white kid in an otherwise all black theater and it was an unforgettable experience, not so much what was taking place onscreen, which was a non-stop blur, but what I witnessed going on in the theater, which I’ve never seen since.  People were actually having sex, full blown intercourse with their pants down, as well as a few other variations, and in addition to people smoking grass, which was not such an uncommon experience in those days, several people were openly shooting up in the theater.  Yes, we used to live in a much more open society.     


Time Out review

Arguably the most important black American film of its age, yet it's remained virtually unseen in Britain. In part that's because it is truly independent, shot on a shoestring and determinedly flouting Hollywood conventions of self- censorship. A 'Yeah Production', 'starring The Black Community', and dedicated to 'all the Brothers and Sisters who had enough of the Man', it's not what you'd call 'bourgeois art'. The story, such as it is, concerns a stud, Sweetback (Van Peebles), who's moved to fight back when two white cops casually beat up a political activist in front of him. He's on the run for the rest of the movie, with occasional stops for sex and/or further police brutality. Totally uncompromising and grindingly repetitive, the film nevertheless accumulates a kind of hallucinatory groove, with unexpected shafts of bizarre humour and vigorous, experimental new wave direction (psychedelic negative images, split screen and so forth). Written, composed, produced, directed and edited by Van Peebles, it remains one of a kind. (Mark Netter) review

In the middle of watching this movie, nearly two decades after its release, the elderly white woman in the next seat turned to me and whispered, "This movie is dangerous!" Melvin Van Peebles self-financed (with some help from Bill Cosby), starred in, wrote and directed the first completely unrestrained African American cinematic utterance, and it still shocks all these years later with raw sexual and violent imagery, and an incendiary point of view. In Sweetback's world, rich white folks come up to Harlem to watch black folks fornicate, and our racist state condemns any truly virile black man to life on the run, if at all. It's even more of a racial Rorschach Test than Do the Right Thing, but the next great wave of African American filmmakers - including Spike Lee, The Hughes Brothers, and even Melvin's son Mario Van Peebles - owe a world of debt to the pioneer filmmaker and film that broke all the rules.

Classified X (Melvin Van Peebles)   Laurence Kardish from Film Scouts

In 1971 with one startling film, Melvin Van Peebles, writer, director, producer, and musician, forever changed the face of American film. Before Sundance and a network supporting American independent filmmakers were even conceivable, Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song wore its "X" rating like a badge of honor and swept through urban theatres like a house on fire. It proved at once there was an enormous audience for independent films, ones where blacks did something they had not done in earlier American films: fight back. Sweetback is the first American film with a black protagonist who refuses to adapt to the daily humiliations of racism. He is neither passive nor good: He is a brother who dares to get "the Man's foot out of his ass." Melvin Van Peebles' Classified X, the startling new documentary written and performed by Van Peebles and directed by Mark Daniels, is about the nightmare images of self that Hollywood offered up to African-Americans in dream palaces across the country before Sweetback, and surprisingly, after.

Movie images sustain racism. Over and over again, Hollywood made blacks the objects of derision or fear: African-Americans were illiterate primitives, rustic fools, fumbling servants, or simply outside society. Young blacks began to surrender to these self-images, while whites accepted them comfortably. Using images from classic American films as chilling reference, Van Peebles explains with wit and anger why popular culture is still a matter of black and white.

Exclaim! dvd review  David Dacks

This groundbreaking movie launched the blaxploitation movement in American cinema. But just five minutes in you'll realise that every other blaxploitation movie was tame compared to this freewheeling psych-out. Although director Melvin Van Peebles maintains that this was a chance for black America to tell its own story, the plot itself is at the far fringes of what any movie could depict in 1970, hence the tag-line “rated X by an all-white jury.” Sweetback is a young, mostly silent street urchin taken in by residents of a bordello and raised to become a gender-bending sex show performer/bouncer. Upon witnessing the beating of a young radical, he kills two cops and starts to run to the Mexican border. But Sweetback is no Shaft, he is the silent observer of a freaky milieu, a true anti-hero that hardly ever speaks and is pushed into doing what appears to be “the right thing” only when his back is against the wall. Along the way he uses any means at his disposal to get out of bad situations. The plot itself is secondary to the whirlwind of repetitive images, jump cut sonics, screechy Greek choruses and the sense of desperation throughout. The music, by the first incarnation of Earth Wind and Fire, is just as important as the dialogue or photography. One important aspect never emphasised is that Sweetback is closer to French new wave than the blaxploitation that followed. Even the "making of" featurette finds Van Peebles in Paris, although he doesn't acknowledge Godard's influence. The difference is Van Peebles isn't French and his filmmaking is absolutely unrestrained. It remains a hard film to come to terms with — there's more going on than a story of a put-upon hero running from the law, or an Afro-American knockoff of French filmic techniques. Not many American films look or feel like this, and it's still shocking and angry after all these years. Extras: “making of” featurette.

User comments  from imdb Author: Brandt Sponseller from New York City

Considered the first blaxploitation film, Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song features Melvin Van Peebles (who also directed, wrote, produced, edited and did music for the film) as Sweetback, a Los Angeles-area "male prostitute"/"sex performer" (who only has relations with females). He agrees to be taken in to a police station as a suspect just to make a couple cops look good (because they are tolerant towards the cathouse he lives in). On the way, they pick up a Black Panther and start beating him senseless. Sweetback bludgeons and stabs the two cops with his handcuffs (one end is open) and the bulk of the film has him on the run. Can he make it to Mexico before he's caught?

Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song has a lot of historical significance. It is an early independent film in what's considered the current "modern" style, it is one of the earliest mostly black films of its era (there were all black films earlier, such as Oscar Micheaux's work, but they disappeared for awhile), it was controversial (it initially earned an X rating (later changed to an R) and touted that fact proudly as a tagline), it was made for $150 thousand but grossed $15 million, and most importantly perhaps for some film lovers, it is credited with starting the blaxploitation craze in the 1970s. It is worth watching for students of film on those merits alone.

But none of those facts alone make it a good film, and none affect my rating. In terms of quality, Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song gets my vaunted 5 out of 10 rating, which is usually reserved for "so bad they're good" films. Although it is loaded with flaws, as one might expect from a low budget film from the era shot guerilla-style on the streets of Los Angeles, it is a hoot to watch. On the weirdness scale, it definitely earns a 10.

Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song is firmly mired in the psychedelic era. Peebles gives us frequent shots with negative or false colors near the beginning of the film. More frequently, he directs scenes so they have various "altered reality" allusions--time stretching, repeating, stopping and stuttering, bizarre actions and reactions from various characters, rambling nonsense, and so on--which for the viewer approximate the perception of someone who is wasted almost to the point of passing out. These scenes often play like some kind of avant-garde performance art, and are as much a focus of the film as any of the usually cited "political" messages rooted in racially oriented turmoil and disparity. Perhaps the intended theme was that race relations, and the urban reality of blacks to that point were as bizarre as acid trips, some good, some bad.

The music is equally bizarre (which I love), with a recurrent jazz/funk piece with an almost atonal saxophone melody being the unifier. Some of the vocal music is a veritable Greek chorus, narrating action and emotions, providing critiques and so on. Peebles also frequently layers musical tracks, so two or more can be playing at once for a minute or two.

The film is also notable and admirable for its abundance of almost graphic sex scenes and gratuitous nudity. The opening scene is particularly groundbreaking and laudable. Throughout the film, Sweetback is an unstoppable stud, with almost any woman he desires dropping her drawers for him, even towards the end of the film, despite the fact that he has an oozing, infected sore running up the side of his body, not to mention that he's filthy, and he's been drinking mud and eating raw lizards. The ladies still find him hot enough to give him a poke in the bushes. We need much more of this kind of material in contemporary films.

At one point, Peebles and/or director of photography Robert Maxwell appear to have hit the streets of Los Angeles, filming people at random after they asked them if they've seen Sweetback (the character). These shots are inserted into the extended chase scene near the end of the film (2/3 to 3/4 of the film is actually an extended chase scene). The effect is a lot of fun to watch--definitely guerilla film-making at its finest.

But the problems with the film are legion. Maxwell's camera frequently goes in and out of focus (being generous, we could interpret it with psychedelic intent, but I'm skeptical). Night scenes (which are thankfully avoided for the most part) tend to be seas of blackness where a viewer can only occasionally make out enough of an image to piece together the scene in their mind. The sound is awful--I couldn't make out about half of the dialogue (at one point I thought "this is more like watching a silent film"), and it doesn't help that some characters "jive talk"; if ever a film needed subtitles, it's this one. The camera occasionally has a spot, a hair, or some other gunk on the lens. There isn't much to the story; after awhile, it starts to play more like an odd music video. A lot of shots--scenery, cityscapes, etc.--look like they may have been randomly taken by Peebles with his home camera with the hopes of one day using them in a film.

Still, for fans of weirdness and "so bad they're good" films, not to mention any blaxploitation fan with his or her weight in barbecued ribs, Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song is a must see. Make sure you also check out How to Get the Man's Foot Outta Your Ass (aka Baadasssss!), Peebles' son Mario's 2003 film about Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song.

Movie Vault [Friday and Saturday Night Critic]

I could start out Sweet Sweetback talking about its historical significance, with what it was the first to do, but doesn’t that always imply that a film only holds up when you take its place in history into consideration? Doesn’t that always imply that it’s a little bit, well, boring and incomplete if you don’t have a history book right next to you? Certainly Sweetback is a groundbreaker, but let’s not think about all that now. Let’s think about what it IS, which is an intense and startling montage of sounds and images, powered and driven by indignation, about a people sick of getting trampled on. Or, as the movie puts it, “all the Brothers and Sisters who are tired of being held down by the Man.

Another title card that appears after that one claims the movie is “Starring The Black Community.” Ostentatious, perhaps, but this is back when movies could make grand and sincere statements, as opposed to now when a movie can be as big as it wants, perhaps even win 11 Academy Awards, only if it can be easily proven to mean nothing at all. Sweet Sweetback is not about character or story—neither Sweetback himself nor any other character is really developed—so much as it is a journey through the iconography of the urban 1970s, which was largely poor and black and, up until this point, hadn’t gotten much silver screen time. Oops, I played the history card after I said I wouldn’t.

The basic plot is simplicity itself, the kind of thing that would take about five or ten pages in Toni Morrison and then pop up again for a couple of paragraphs fifty or sixty pages later. A street hustler—that’s a nice name for “male prostitute who only has female clients”—sees two corrupt and dirty cops beating the crap out of a helpless suspect. The hustler, named Sweet Sweetback (writer-director Melvin Van Peebles), wallops the cops within inches of their lives. Soon Sweetback is on the lam and the net is closing, while swarms of dirty cops beat and bludgeon their way through the black community.

Nighttime during Sweetback’s flight is a neon Babylon of “XXX” and “All Nude Girls,” with the occasional “Jesus Saves.” Daytime is an economically depressed wasteland of blackened factories, abandoned warehouses, shabby houses, and chipped paint. Sweetback visits a church where heaven is preached from the pulpit and revolution is preached behind closed doors. He seeks help from his pimp, who is deafened for his troubles, from the local mob, who treat him as the walking dead, from an old girlfriend, who wants a piece of him, and eventually from a white biker gang. And everywhere he turns, there’s a woman waiting to get a little action, although the fact that Sweetback obliges them joylessly probably means something. At every step, we catch glimpses of Sweetback’s neighbors telling police officers that they haven’t seen him or even know who he is.

Sweetback is eventually joined on his exodus by the suspect he rescued, who is apparently a political revolutionary, although I’d be lying if I said I didn’t have to read the back of the box to figure that out. He’s called the “ringleader” by a cop in a quick line of dialogue, but there’s nothing to indicate the cop isn’t just making fun of him in a “crown-of-thorns” kind of way.

Sweet Sweetback’s Baad Asssss Song is very much a movie of the late 1960s and early 1970s, with real locations instead of sets, detached, almost documentary-style camera angles, and plenty of experimentation with lighting, overlapping images, conversations directly to the camera, and even some animated negative images. It’s as trippy as Easy Rider from two years earlier and in many ways not unlike what Nicholas Roeg was doing on the other side of the world with Walkabout. It is also a dirty cheap production entirely shot in 19 days; to call it rough around the edges would be merciful. Certainly a lot of the script was probably built around necessity, around which locations the filmmakers could access and their limited ability to record sound. But even Leonardo da Vinci was limited by the colors that he had.

Sweetback’s life as a joyless sexual commodity is summarized in a clever and surreal early sequence, in which we see him climb into bed with a woman as a teenager and stand up a grown man. Sweetback is hounded by music wherever he goes, like all the voices he’s ever heard in whole life, including traditional spirituals, militant diatribes, and contemporary funk, all run together and overlapping. The music is provided by no less than Earth, Wind and Fire, with contributions by Van Peebles and his son and daughter. Also, as part of its era, Sweet Sweetback features a lot of nudity—the movie was justifiably rated X, although there’s no actual coitus—and one could make an easy and convincing argument that not all of it is necessary. The “ban” on nudity in American films only lifted in 1967, I think, and, like a painter getting brand new color, the heretofore inaccessible form of self-expression is used perhaps too liberally.

And now to play the history card: Sweet Sweetback’s Baad Asssss Song is a groundbreaking step in the modern idea of independent film. With very, very limited resources and equipment, it’s as guerilla as anything by Robert Rodriguez. Stanley Kubrick was filming outside studios and backlots as early as 1955, but if history has taught us anything it’s that just because Kubrick does something it doesn’t mean anyone else can. The making of Sweet Sweetback is chronicled by Melvin Van Peebles’ son Mario in the new film Baad Asssss! in which the father is played by the son. A tale of broken cameras and bounced checks, Baad Assss! is about how you basically have to be a tyrannical S.O.B. to get a movie made in 19 days for no money. With its tone of determination and irreverent whimsy, it definitely qualifies as a “dram-edy,” and modern audiences will probably find it more compulsively watchable than the film upon which it is based.

Of course, Sweet Sweetback also gave birth to “blaxploitation” films. The phrase “exploitation film” is tossed around a lot without anyone bothering to define it, but this is what I think an exploitation film is: a cheap, inferior, even campy copy of a cheap, sincere, original that made a lot of money. It is the genre that is being exploited. It took me about the first third of Sweetback to start taking everything at face value. Movies like Coffy and Detroit 9000 have programmed us to see those situations and ideals with at least partial irony, and to compare them more to Lethal Weapon than Toni Morrison. Van Peebles made Sweetback because he was tired of seeing negative stereotypes of non-white characters in Hollywood movies. So, yeah, maybe I am giving the movie a few extra points for historical significance; maybe I’m going a half-star higher than if it came out last week for the first time. In the case of blaxploitation, irony of ironies, the mold Van Peebles made with Sweetback rapidly became just another stereotype. Nonconformist black antiheroes, sexually aggressive and wary if not downright belligerent to police, began to crop up at theaters everywhere. Did the new stereotype become a joke and ultimately damage Van Peebles’ ambitions? Well, the Man’s just like that.

Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song   Steven Schneider from Film Reference

not coming to a theater near you (Rumsey Taylor) review

Sweet's Back Again   Nicky Baxter from Metro Active Arts, November 9 – 15, 1995


The Blaxploitation Era | Harvard Magazine January-February 2003   Craig Lambert from Harvard Magazine, January/February 2003


Spectacle, masculinity, and music in blaxploitation cinema   Amanda Howell from Screening the Past, July 14, 2005


'Rated X by an All-White Jury'  Stewart Home from Mute magazine, January 5, 2006, also seen here:  Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song review of DVD


Marcia G. Yerman: Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song at Von Lintel ...   Marcia G. Yerman essay from The Huffington Post, January 7, 2008


Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song -  also seen here:  Sweet Sweetback\'s Baadasssss Song - Citizendia, and here:  Sweet Sweetback


Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song Explained  Everything Explained


Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song   Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias


Electric Sheep Magazine [Virginie Sélavy]


Ferdy on Films [Marilyn Ferdinand]


DVD Times [Anthony Nield]


Sweet Sweetback's Baadassss Song - The Deuce   Popeye Pete from The Deuce


Q Network Film Desk (James Kendrick) review [3/5]


Time Magazine


America the Critical: 15 Movies That Show What's Wrong With U.S. (Part Three)  Andrew Osborne from Nerve Screengrab, June 26, 2008


A Wasted Life  Bryin Abraham


Serdar Yegulalp retrospective


BFI Filmstore US & Canadian Cinema   BFI film description


Movie House Commentary  Johnny Web


Blaxploitation Pride: Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song (1971)]


Blaxploitation Pride: Melvin Van Peebles - Sweet Sweetback's ...   January 18, 2008


Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song   Banned and Censored Cinema


<Sweet Sweetback>   SBBFC


The Aspect Ratio [Pete Roberts]


Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song at AllExperts (Christopher Null) review [2/5]


Cult Reviews


Livejournal [ I Hate Movies]  Steve Clark 


Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song   Sean Axmaker from Super 70’s


Bad Movie Night [Ken M. Wilson]  One of the most horrible films to endure by any one person. There should be support groups for viewers who intend to sit through the movie.


All Movie Guide [Lucia Bozzola]


The Super Black Macho, One Baaad Mutha: Black Superhero ...  The Super Black Macho, One Baaad Muthu: Black Superhero Masculinity in 1970’s Mainstream Comic Books, by Rob Lendrum (undated)  (pdf format – 7 pages) 


the Rise and Fall  The Rise and Fall of Blaxploitation, by Ed Guerrero from Framing Blackness: the African American Image in Film (pages 69 – 111, 1993) (pdf format), also seen here:  View as HTML


The African American Experience   Urban Cinema, essay by Paula J. Massood on Todd Boyd’s book, African Americans and Popular Culture, Volume 1 Theater, Film, and Television  (undated), also seen here:  Pop Culture Universe - Urban Cinema


Bright Lights Film Journal | Blaxploitation   Gary Morris, March 1997


Melvin Van Peebles and the Black Panthers   Director Joe Angio and Producer Michael Solomon [How to Eat Watermelon in White Company (and Enjoy it)] interview Black Panther Billy “X” Jennings from MVP Movie, May 14, 2004


Vue Weekly : Edmonton's 100% Independent Weekly : Sweet ...   Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss! Son, by Minister Faust from Vue magazine, September 2, 2004 


FrontPage Magazine - Panther: An Interview with Mario Van Peebles   Mario shares thoughts about his father from Front Page magazine, July/August 1995


TV Guide


Channel 4 Film [Richard Luck]


Variety review


SWEET SWEETBACK'S BAADASSSSS SONG  Roger Greenspun from The New York Times, April 24, 1971


The New York Times (Vincent Canby) review   May 9, 1971

FILM VIEW; Sweet Sweetback's World Revisited  Stephen Holden from The New York Times, July 2, 1995

FILM; Can Black People Fly? Don't Ask 'Soul Plane'  A.O. Scott from The New York Times, June 13, 2004 [Gary W. Tooze]


Melvin Van Peebles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Image results for Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song photos


Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song (soundtrack) - Wikipedia, the ...


Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song by Melvin Van Peebles : Reviews ...   musical comments from Rate Your Music


Blaxploitation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia | A soulful Tribute...  Black Panther Party Official Website



USA  (99 mi)  1973


User comments  from imdb Author: tomadeek29 from Detroit, Mich

If you enjoy avant-garde films and/or cult and/or low budget black (afro-american)comedy, then you are probably already a fan of Melvin Van Peebles. I love telling people about this film because it's so simple yet profound and a whole lot of fun! It feels like this film was originally a stage play cause it all takes place in one flat. The music is bluesy, gospel and folk and yes chile it's low budget, but that's the point. It's great to see black actors like Mabel King and Esther Rolle doing work that you can tell they actually enjoyed doing for a change!!!! Not only did Melvin Van Peebles write the script, but he also composed all of the music. With the exception of Esther Rolle the cast has great, soulful voices, but even the monotoned throaty voice of Rolle adds great character to the film. It's the rawness and honesty of this movie that makes it so great...Besides I'm sure Miss Rolle knows she can't sing!

The Onion A.V. Club [Keith Phipps]

Made shortly after Sweet Sweetback's Baadassssss Song, this Melvin Van Peebles musical follows the exploits of two devils who seem to specialize in breaking up parties. When they turn their attention to a raucous birthday party in Harlem, however, they find they have their work cut out for them. Don't Play Us Cheap later went on to become a successful Broadway play, but for one reason or another, this film version has remained unreleased until now. It's a find, too. Though its plot is as bizarre as it sounds—and it does have the look of a filmed play mixed with some incongruous artsy touches—Don't Play Us Cheap is broadly, humorously and exuberantly acted by its cast, which includes Esther Rolle from The Jeffersons. Better still, its songs, such as "You Cut Up The Clothes In The Closet Of My Dreams," are a lot of fun and make up for many of the rough edges. Fans of early-'70s black-themed films will want to give it a look, and those who think of Van Peebles only as an angry young man with a single message will be pleasantly surprised.  Fernando F. Croce

After pulverizing stylistic conventions in Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, Melvin Van Peebles could only go back and piece the narrative shards together. Not that his follow-up, an adaptation of his own popular Broadway musical-comedy, is anywhere near Bazinian: despite the one-set constraints, Van Peebles still manages to continually carve the plot -- two devil bats materialize in human shape at a raucous Saturday night Harlem party, bent on souring the fun -- via changes in stock, spastic zooms, superimpositions, constant ruptures between sound and image. Barely released, the film's irrepressibly ethnic vaudeville is irreplaceable Soul Capsule circa 1973: former Ikette Joshie Jo Armstead doing "You Cut Up the Clothes in the Closet of My Dreams," Esther Rolle laying down the law with "It Makes No Difference," Cotton Club staple Avon Long running around, Joseph Keyes' uvula-flaunting "I'm a Bad Character," toothpick-legged ingénue Rhetta Hughes' mock-pliant "My Man," George (Ooppee) McCurn letting his gospel basso soar. Less incendiary in its polemics than Watermelon Man or Sweetback, the film is just as concerned with exploring tensions within black culture, its harmony threatened by elements of class, religion, the male image, even the myth of malevolent tricksters. (For a more subtly stylized treatment of similar themes, devilish intruder included, see Charles Burnett's splendid To Sleep With Anger.) Also with Mabel King, Thomas Anderson, Robert Dunn, and Frank Carey.

Variety review



USA  (90 mi)  1989


User comments  from imdb Author: BOND245 from United States

One of the worst movies I have ever seen. I realize it is supposed to be a farce, but COME ON! The audio sounds like it was recorded on a wax record. The acting is terrible. No wonder Wyatt from Weird Science quit the movie business. This movie wants to make me quit the movie watching business. The budget seems to me small, but I have seen student films shot on NO BUDGET that have better effects than this movie. Particularly bad is when the boat explodes. GEESH!

Melvin Van Peebles also cast himself as the know-it-all detective with the hot wife, AND as the narrator which is both confusing as a plot detail and wildly unsuccessful. So if you haven't gather it by now, avoid this movie at all costs.


Germany  USA  (29 mi)  1995


User comments  from imdb Author: raymond-15 from Australia

What young man has never yearned for a shiny motor bike and a special girl friend? In this short film Leroy has his dreams fulfilled in an unexpected way following a brave and courageous act. Voodooism working on his mind transforms his unexciting life into episodes beyond his wildest dreams.

The film is unmistakably suggestive as Leroy sits astride his powerful machine which responds in a highly sexual fashion.

I found the computeristaion of the images quite imaginative, although the "sexy" transformation scenes were obviously created in a studio and not that convincing.

The film will probably appeal to young men whose dreams have not yet been fully realised.

GANG IN BLUE – made for TV

USA  (97 mi)  1996        co-director:  Mario Van Peebles


User comments  from imdb Author: Woodyanders ( from The Last New Jersey Drive-In on the Left

Honest black cop Michael Rhoades (a fine performance by Mario Van Peebles) takes a stand against a racist group of white vigilante police officers called the Phantoms and does his best to acquire the necessary evidence to bust these guys. Of course, Rhoades immediately finds himself in considerable jeopardy. Directed with real style and assurance by Mario and Melvin Van Peebles, with a strong script by Rick Natkin and David Fuller, a credible sense of pervasive moral baseness and corruption, a tough, gritty tone, slick cinematography by Rhett Morita, an engrossing plot, a moody score by Larry Brown, a provocative subtext about the abuse of power, a snappy pace, and several exciting action scenes, this movie makes the grade as a tense and compelling cop flick. The picture further benefits from sound acting from a top-rate cast: Josh Brolin as sadistic former marine Keith DeBruler, Cynda Williams as helpful FBI agent Anita Boyard, the always great J.T. Walsh as smarmy Lieutenant William Eyler, Stephen Lang as the slimy, venomous Moose Tavola, Sean McCann as venerable old-timer Clute Mirkovich, Melvin Van Peebles as wise, amiable veteran Andre Speier, and Bruce Smolanoff as hateful jerk Theo Jensen. A solid and satisfying film.

Variety (Tony Scott) review

It's gang time within a police precinct as the Phantoms , a secret group of thugs in blue, sustain a white supremacy mode. The worthy subject is not exactly a revelation, but it bears retelling; too bad the teleplay by David Fuller and Rick Natkin is so simplistic and the production itself so obvious. Michael Rhoades (Mario Van Peebles) knows that, as a black cop, he's not the precinct's pinup boy, but he tumbles to the real truth the hard way. Fuller and Natkin let truths eke out, and Rhoades moves from plot point to plot point.

As co-directors, Peebles and his dad Melvin Van Peebles apply speed and pressure, but it's familiar territory. An incident at a Chinese eatery opens the action and Rhoades'eyes to civilian treatment. The Bund tries eliminating him because he's curious and black. He calls on his FBI ex-girlfriend Anita (Cynda Williams) to help expose the ring, but she's into other things. The Phantoms, practicing their excesses in everything from drug busts to gambling raids, have their own secret clubhouse. Gang members are led by Moose Tavola (Stephen Lang, spitting out unconditional hate), with SS-like aides delighting in beating up anyone violating their snow-white code. An ex-Marine, Keith DeBruler (Josh Brolin), joins the troops, and Moose moves to collect another member. Keith's willing, and a conveniently plotted move makes him Rhoades' partner. The Van Peebles pair, who also co-produced, send down ample grit and gore, and there's plenty of cursing, bashing and blood and whizzing bullets in well-choreo'd action scenes.

Production designer Rocco Matteo has created a pungent, claustrophobic feel that's fitting, and Rhett Morita's camerawork is effective. Mario Van Peebles wastes his talent with a limiting, stereotyped role. Melvin Van Peebles plays veteran cop Speier, and their verbal exchanges are flat or old hat, though the senior actor gets off an old-fashioned truism that he makes work: "This ain't about black, this ain't about white; it's about right, man!" Brolin's undemanding rookie passes muster, J.T. Walsh is effective as the assured Lt. Eyler, and Sean McCann as a depressed retiring officer succeeds. Lang's Moose is a threatening and unsurprising meanie, and Williams' FBI character is OK. A badly conceived proselytizing officer played by Peter Kosakais best forgotten. Natkin and Fuller have incorporated a couple of surprises, but they can't help a basically routine cops-and-cops meller. Larry Brown's intelligent score tries coming to the aid, too, but it's no use. Unconvincing vidpic doesn't do much for justice's cause.

BELLYFULL (Le Conte du Ventre Plein)

France  Netherlands  (105 mi)  2000


Variety (Lisa Nesselson) review

A subversively entertaining take on keeping up appearances via carefully spun racism and prejudice, Melvin Van Peebles' "Bellyful" is an original look at what transpires when closed-minded conservative hypocrites pretend to be open-minded humanitarian liberals. Sly French-lingo venture based on helmer's novel uses digital video to its advantage in re-creating the look and feel of small-town France circa 1967. Pic preemed as a special presentation in Cannes' Critics Week and opens Wednesday in Gaul; fests will find this a welcome addition.

Respectable middle-aged couple Loretta (Andrea Ferreol) and Henri (Jacques Boudet) tell the director of an orphanage they've been overwhelmed with work at their bistro, Le Ventre Plein (The Full Belly), since their daughter went to stay with a sick aunt. Although they live in an insular, all-white community, the pair are unnervingly eager to offer a waitressing job to a young black woman. Sweet, trusting Diamantine (Meiji U Tum'si) fills the bill. She's about to turn 18 and has lived her entire life at the orphanage.

Solicitous to the point of smarminess, Loretta and Henri tell their live-in employee that she's "one of the family," yet seem to go out of their way to encourage the townsfolk to disapprove of the accommodating young lady. One evening, they ask if Diamantine would be willing to repay their kindness by pretending to be pregnant. The girl goes along with what she's been assured is a joke, wearing increasing layers of padding under her clothes.

Loretta can barely contain her joy when Jan (versatile Dutch musician Herman van Veen), a Flemish friend who spent seven years in prison on a smuggling charge, comes to stay. Jan keeps asking about their daughter but is told she's in Toulouse tending to a sick aunt. Some 45 minutes in, the reasons for the pregnancy charade are revealed -- and they're mighty twisted, in a quasi-upstanding sort of way.

Scripter-helmer Van Peebles sustains an agreeably conspiratorial mood and has a field day chipping away at the allegedly pious, self-described "pillars of the community." Ferreol simply couldn't be better, and U Tum'si is grounded and delightful as goodness incarnate. By setting his tale in a cultural backwater back in the mid-'60s, when unwed mothers were automatic pariahs, Van Peebles draws a subtle map of how intolerance can be either fanned or stamped out.

Digital lensing is very good, as is the film transfer. A few wacky flashbacks -- including one in which an elderly woman permanently lends a hand to her jealous husband -- are particularly memorable for their narrative chutzpah. Helmer also composed the score, which ranges across several styles but favors jazzy, effusive piano music.

CONFESSIONS OF A EX-DOOFUS-ITCHY FOOTED MUTHA – Digital Beta video      C                     74 

USA  (99 mi)  2008        Melvin Van Peebles - : : : :


Nearly three decades have passed since Van Peebles released his X-Rated revolutionary diatribe SWEET SWEETBACK’S BADASSSS SONG (1971), basically establishing the black independent movement in American cinema, leading to a plethora of commercially successful blaxploitation flicks in the 70’s, but this feels like an offshoot from that film, using nearly the exact same film style, a near indecipherable, fuzzy and rambling account of a black man on the run, no longer using political invective, also fewer guns and less sex, but it still feels like an underground film style continuously editing together multiple images superimposed over the same frame, a device he uses throughout the entire film, using music that sounds like it was recorded in the same recording session as his earlier film.  Melvin appears in nearly every frame of this film, curiously shot in his present age for every earlier stage of his life as he ruefully recounts the story of his life from childhood to adulthood, using a denigrating tone to poke fun at himself, but despite the comical title and exaggerated avant garde style, this film makes it difficult to connect with the life experience of the screen Melvin, who has to pursue his dream of traveling around the world in order to discover that his true love lived in his home town neighborhood all along.  Much of this is more than a little over the top, but it’s all in good fun, as Melvin’s life resembles a travel brochure, as he learned to read travel periodicals in the library instead of watching movies every week in order to avoid getting beat up by local bad boys, something that was part of his everyday experience.  Despite finding the love of his life in Harlem, he remains true to his life’s ambition, joining the Merchant Marines and heading off to sea.  His adventures are recounted in near comic book fashion, where at times it’s hard to distinguish between the fantasy and reality as Melvin continuously narrates the entire story.  While occasionally it moves into a musical format, unfortunately there are too few good ideas and much of this comes across as self-absorbed jibberish failing to connect on any level. 


Time Out New York [David Fear]

Yousuresaidamouthful there, Melvin. The iconic director of Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song recounts how his younger self—played by the preternaturally revved-up septuagenarian—gave in to a perpetual wanderlust. Then the semiautobiographical elements involving adolescent indiscretions get pushed to the side; cue crazy misadventures with pirates, African dictators and a horny ape. There’s something admirable about the anything-goes energy that Van Peebles brings to this tall tale, but the amateurishness and Video Toaster–era technical tricks start to grate after a bit. It’s a funky, free-form fairy tale, but one that only a mutha could truly love.

NewCity Chicago   Ray Pride 

It’s grand that a physical, mindful force of 1960s American alternative cinema like Melvin Van Peebles can tell a story at the age of 75 about being an anti-Hollywood “maverick” with an epochal success like 1971’s “Sweet Sweetback’s Badassss Song.” With “Confessions of A Ex-Doofus-Itchy Footed Mutha,” the grand old man and inveterate trickster figure becomes an unregenerate youth forever on the run.  Based on his 1982 Broadway production, “Waltz of the Stork,” this partly musical semi-autobiographical fantasia uses the lower rungs of digital-video imagery to compile Van Peeble’s imagination from boyhood to middle age to mixed result. “Ex-Doofus-Itchy” is a mass of hardly digested material about twentieth-century African-American cultural experience that rings both true and deadly. Peebles looks tired. He’s lived a life. Then he made this movie. 75m.

Village Voice (Nick Pinkerton) review  also here from Zimbio:  Confessionsofa Ex-Doofus-ItchyFooted Mutha Directed by Melvin Van Peebles  

In Melvin Van Peebles's homely home-video-art love-story curio, incorporating fragments of his 1982 stage musical Waltz of the Stork, the seventysomething star-writer-director plays the lead role from age 15 to 45, opposite actors who are, in every case, younger. This makes the scenes of teenaged sexual discovery particularly eyebrow-raising. Like practically everything in the movie, the device only really "works" on a theoretical level, though it's transfixing for a time, in a slightly sad way. Van Peebles's unnamed protagonist narrates back on his life from middle age, talking over reenactments of his running away from Chicago ("Itchyfoot" meaning wanderlust), escape from gangsters, Harlem domesticity, pirate fighting with the Merchant Marines, gigoloing, and courtiering in royal Africa. The film has a footling kind of style, emptying the whole after-effects toolbox of weird wipes, superimpositions, and solarizations. There's little concession to period detail in blithely anachronistic street scenes, and the art direction is not much more than one would expect from a backyard eighth-grade production. There's a temptation to "give" this to Van Peebles, but any scene in which actors get to interact is deathly awkward, and 100 minutes should never feel this long.


Melvin Van Peebles-filmmaker, playwright, composer, crooner, ladies' man, and living legend-returns to the screen with this picaresque yarn about a boy from Chicago who wants to see the world and get rich but discovers that all he needs is the love of a good woman. Based on Van Peebles' 1982 Broadway show Waltz of the Stork, Confessions chronicles the adventures of a man who, armed only with a can of contingency cash, swims his way to New York, joins the merchant marines, romances women of all ages and an amorous gorilla, and dances for his life in the court of Zampoughi. "Thereby hangs the tale," says Van Peebles. "A piece of one, anyway." That Van Peebles, at 75, plays the title character from boyhood to age 47 only adds to the playful incongruity of this singular saga, which condenses half a century of Black experience -- from the blind bluesmen of Chicago to the hustlers of Harlem to the diamond miners of West Africa -- into a tall tale of one man's wanderlust. As handmade as filmmaking gets Van Peebles uses digital media not as a substitute for film, but as a brand-new toy, and with a cast of friends and family that includes his son Mario Van Peebles as a pirate, Realist editor Paul Krassner, and Classical Theatre of Harlem cofounder Albert Preisser, Van Peebles' semi-musical, barely autobiographical bildungsroman celebrates the joy of storytelling in a personal film straight from the trickster soul of a Renaissance man. "It's tough being called a liar," winks Van Peebles through a puff of smoke, "even when you're lying." (Tribeca Film Festival)

User comments  from imdb Author: Alex P (miskatonic86) from Baltimore, Maryland

I got to see CONFESSIONSOFA-EX-DOOFUS-ITCHYFOOTED MUTHA, Melvin van Peebles first American film in a long time, as the closing film of the Maryland film festival, just days after being premiered at Tribeca. The legendary African-American director Melvin van Peebles broke ground with the bizarre and yet incredible SWEET SWEETBACK'S BAADASSSSS SONG, and this newest film meets all the criteria of a van Peebles film.

The director himself plays an old man and former adventurer who begins to recall his wild and wacky adventures from his teenage years to middle-age. We see flashbacks of his life throughout. Instead of getting other actors to play his character in these different flashbacks, van Peebles plays himself throughout. He is a 75 year old man playing himself from ages 14 to 45ish.

Melvin van Peebles will always remain an essential figure not only to African-American cinema but to independent cinema. I like to think of him as a combination of Spike Lee and John Cassavetes. And CONFESSIONSOFA EX-DOOFUS-ITCHYFOOTED MUTHA is a real independent film.

The adventures created for van Peebles' character are some of the most creative ever. There are so many ridiculous things throughout it becomes comedic. I got to hear a talk from the man himself after the film, and he is just like the character he played in CONFESSIONSOFA. Must see!

Tribeca Film Festival Review: "Confessions of an Ex-Doofus-Itchy-Footed Mutha"  Phil Nugent from Nerve Screengrab, May 2, 2008  

Melvin Van Peebles has been well-established as a maverick independent filmmaker and provocateur since at least 1971's Sweet Sweetback's Badassss Song. His new film, Confessions of an Ex-Doofus-Itchy-Footed Mutha, confirms that he's also still got a way with titles. He also still has an admirable willingness to make a public jackass of himself and an impressive ability to coax other people into coming along for the ride. Aside from that, though, there isn't a lot else to say about this smeared-looking video fantasy, spun off from one of his old stage shows, Waltz of the Stork. There might have been a few things that should have been said to Van Peebles before he made it, but I don't know who would have been deputized to say them. When the man's own son, Mario, has signed off for a cameo appearance as a pirate, it's hard to say who might have been best qualified to stage an intervention.

Confessions makes full use of the quality that has always been Van Peebles's secret weapon and that has outweighted everything else he's ever brought to the table, which is his absolute and fearless shamelessness. The seventy-five-year-old auteur plays the vagabond hero from the time he's fourteen through his mid-forties. This conceit might have been fun if Van Peebles were an actor, but he's usually gotten by on being a presence, and aside from the occasional outbreak of eye-popping, face-pulling hamminess, he doesn't have any idea what to do with himself here except stand around looking slack, sad-eyed, and grizzled. (As for costuming, Van Peebles tends to favor either one of two looks, the funeral director and the rodeo clown.) It's less amusing that embarrassing to watch him stealing apples as if he were in an Our Gang comedy or acting out his character's sexual initiation and confirming that, however long ago Sweetback was, once a stud, always a stud. (Yes, there are sex scenes. Yes, you do get to see Melvin with his shirt off and snuggling with the ladies, though a body double arrives in the nick of time when things get steamy. And no, none of this is as bad as the scene with the apple: Van Peebles has to be one of the movies' least photogenic eaters this side of Mr. Creosote.) I understand that Van Peebles is so taken with himself and his legend that he thinks the last thing in the world he needs is some distance and perspective in relation to himself, but the fact remains that Mario Van Peebles's swaggering performance as his dad in his own movie BAADASSSSS! from a few years back was both the best work Mario's ever done in movies and the smartest performance ever given by someone purporting to play Melvin Van Peebles. It is indeed a tribute to Melvin Van Peebles's spirit that, at seventy-five, he's still getting movies made and trying to use them to raise hell. But anyone who cares about him ought to pay him the soundest tribute they can by pretending that his latest movie doesn't exist.

Hammer to Nail [Cullen Gallagher]

Slant Magazine review  Bill Weber

TimeOut: Director interview   Taking Confessions, interview by Novid Parsi, from TimeOut Chicago, September 3 - 9, 2009 


Variety   Ronnie Scheib


Los Angeles Times (Kevin Thomas) review


The New York Times review  Mike Hale


Director site   Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death

Van Rompaey, Christophe

MOSCOW, BELGIUM (Aanrijding in Moscow)

Belgium  (102 mi)  2008


Boyd van Hoeij  at Cannes from

Crossover hits from Flanders are rare and Flemish working-class romantic comedies even less so, but director Christophe van Rompaey may have actually made both when he made his feature film debut Aanrijding in Moscou (Moscow, Belgium). Especially during its first hour, the Flemish boxoffice sensation toys with cliché material with such an assured sense of direction and such a strong screenplay that it simply is a pleasure to watch. The closing 40-odd minutes do not sustain this sense of wonderment over the near-perfect almost-familiar, but thanks in large part to a wonderful cast led by Barbara Sarafian the film is still something that might light up screens elsewhere in Europe. The film is part of the Critics’ Week selection here at the Cannes Film Festival.

Safarian is Matty, a fierce fortysomething whose life seems to come apart after a minor collision (the “aanrijding” of the Flemish title) with a truck transporting Italian lollipops. The 29-year-old redhead driver Johnny (Jurgen Delnaet) has not only bruised her car but also her sense of self. Her art teacher husband Werner (Johan Heldenbergh) is trying to work out whether he prefers Matty to one of his 22-year-old students, while their three children are trying to figure out where they stand in relation to the opportunities and pratfalls of puberty. As Johnny worms his way into the heart of Matty and the lives of the other members of this dysfunctional but lovable family, it becomes clear that everyone has a right to happiness but that this right can only be obtained by making choices, which is not always easy.

The screenplay was written by the novel-writing duo Pat van Beirs and Jean-Claude van Rijckeghem. Beirs also translated several animated comedies into Flemish, including Chicken Run and Monsters Inc, while Van Rijckeghem also had a hand in the equally warm-hearted yet truthful Man zkt vrouw (A Perfect Match). In their screenplay, comedy, drama and nicely observed character-building moments are finely interwoven in the first hour, with the loose yet composed camera movements of cinematographer Ruben Impens following suit. When buried secrets surface and romance, drama and comedy are forced to awkwardly intermingle at a crucial dinner scene, however, Van Rompaey creates something of a dent of his own in this otherwise utterly pleasant surprise from Flanders.

Van Sant, Gus

Essential Gus Van Sant (& His Influences) | NW Film Center  April 23 – June 5, 2015

Over the last three decades, Gus Van Sant has created an extraordinary body of film work. His first long-form films of the late 1980s and early 1990s, known as the “Portland Trilogy”, feature rebellious characters on the fringes of mainstream society who yearned to form new communities. The films became instant cult classics, earning Van Sant acknowledgment as one of the most talented and imaginative filmmakers of the indie film renaissance. Over the next decade, he directed a number of films that brought him critical and commercial success (the hugely popular Good Will Hunting and his bold remake of Hitchcock’s Pyscho), before embarking on a re-evaluation of his artistic process and a return to his early indie roots. This later remarkable group of films features innovative visual style and groundbreaking sound explorations. Along with this survey of his films, we offer an exciting selection of works by filmmakers that have influenced Van Sant’s film practice, including works by Stanley Kubrick, Werner Herzog, and Béla Tarr.—Mario Falsetto.

Gus Van Sant - Director -


Gus Van Sant (1952-) - The Oregon Encyclopedia   biography by Edwin Battistella


Gus Van Sant | American film director and writer |  biography


The Remake of Psycho (Gus Van Sant, 1998) - Senses of Cinema  Constantine Santas, November 5, 2000


Gerry, or all Roads Lead to the “Thing” – Offscreen  Donato Totaro, March 2003


Gus Van Sant's brutal, confusing Elephant. - Slate Magazine  David Edelstein, October 24, 2003 


Blindsided [ELEPHANT] | Jonathan Rosenbaum  November 7, 2003


ELEPHANT | Jonathan Rosenbaum  February 2, 2004


Too Cool for School: Social Problems in Elephant • Senses of Cinema  Tony McKibbin, July 26, 2004


Beauty and the banal | Art and design | The Guardian  Steve Rose from the Guardian, January 28, 2004


Too Cool for School: Social Problems in Elephant • Senses of Cinema  Tony McKibbin, July 26, 2004


My Own Private New Queer Cinema • Senses of Cinema  Mark Adnum from Senses of Cinema, February 8, 2005


Sublime Anarchy in Gus Van Sant's Elephant • Senses of Cinema  Neera Scott, July 22, 2005


Gus Van Sant’s Elephant: an ordinary high school movie, except that it’s not  John P. Garry III from Jump Cut, Winter 2005, also seen here:  "Elephant" by John P Garry III print version - Ejumpcut


Minimalism and art-cinema narration in Gus Van Sant's Gerry ...   54-page Master’s Thesis, Minimalism and art-cinema narration in Gus VanSant's Gerry, Elephant, and Last Days, by Matthew John Alberhasky, 2006 (pdf)


Observable Death: Gus Van Sant's Last Days • Senses of Cinema   John Lars Ericson, February 7, 2006


On the Terminal in Cinema • Senses of Cinema  Andrew Schenker, May 19, 2008


His Own Private Universe -  Shawn Levy profile of the director, Summer 2008


Gus Van Sant - The Daily Beast  polaroid images, May 10, 2010 


Gus Van Sant on Young Love and Young Death - The New York Times  May 13, 2011


Museum of the Moving Image - Programs - Gus Van Sant  September 9 – 30, 2011


5 best Gus Van Sant films - The San Diego Union-Tribune  Christy Lemire, September 15, 2011


Gus van Sant: the last king of the underground | Film | The Guardian  John Patterson, October 20, 2011


Things I've Learned: Gus Van Sant's Six Golden Rules of Moviemaking  Gus van Sant from Moviemaker magazine, June 18, 2013


Weekly Top Five: The films of Gus Van Sant | Bleader  Drew Hunt from The Chicago Reader, September 1, 2013


Realism of the Senses in World Cinema book review  Films for the Senses: Realism of the Senses in World Cinema: The Experience of Physical Reality, by Tiago de Luca, book review by Troy Bordun from Senses of Cinema, December 18, 2014


mono.kultur | GUS VAN SANT  Winter 2014/2015


Don’t Underestimate My Point Of View  Jen Mitas on My Own Private Idaho from The Brooklyn Quarterly, 2015


inside gus van sant's major new retrospective - i-D   Emily Manning from i-D, April 13, 2016


The true story behind Gus Van Sant's forthcoming gay activism ...  The true story behind Gus Van Sant’s forthcoming gay activism miniseries, by Meagan Day from Timeline, April 26, 2016


Gus Van Sant's Young Hollywood Icons, Revisited - The Cut  Danielle Cohen from The Cut, June 26, 2016


See Gus Van Sant's Major Muses in His New 'Icons' Book - artnet News  Eileen Kinsella, June 28, 2016


'My Own Private Idaho' Is a Queer Masterpiece - The Ringer  K. Austin Collins, September 29, 2016


TSPDT - Gus Van Sant


BOMB Magazine — Gus Van Sant by Gary Indiana  Gary Indiana interview, Fall 1993


Gus Van Sant -  Cynthia Joyce interview, October 24, 1997


Gus Van Sant interviews David Foster Wallace | Electric Cereal  May 1998


Gus van Sant's Gerry - Filmmaker Magazine - Winter 2002  Scott Macauley interview


Interview: Gus Van Sant Talks Gerry, Béla Tarr, J.T. Leroy, and More ...  Ed Gonzalez interview from Slant magazine, June 15, 2003


Gerald Peary - interviews - Gus Van Sant - Elephant  November 2003


Simon Hattenstone talks to Gus Van Sant | Film | The Guardian  Simon Hattenstone interview, January 23, 2004


Howard Feinstein on Gus Van Sant's new film, Last Days - The Guardian  Death Trip, Howard Feinstein interviews the director from The Guardian, May 5, 2005


His Own Private Biopic | Village Voice  Rob Nelson interview with Gus van Sant, July 5, 2005 


The Work of Hildegard Westerkamp in the Films of Gus Van Sant ...  Randolph Jordan interviews sound designer Hildegard Westerkamp on her work in van Sant films, from Offscreen, September 2007


Gus van Sant at the New York Film Festival   minutes of a Van Sant Q & A at the New York Film Festival, October 9, 2007  


How Acclaimed Indie Director Gus Van Sant Finally Got Milk - LA Weekly  David Ehrenstein from LA Weekly, November 26, 2008


Gus Van Sant - Page - Interview Magazine  Armistead Maupin interview from Interview magazine, November 26, 2008


The MoJo Interview: Gus Van Sant – Mother Jones  Tony Dushane interview, December 5, 2008


Milk: Interview With Director Gus Van Sant | Emanuel Levy  December 8, 2008


Gus Van Sant on the making of Milk - Telegraph  John Hiscock interview from The Telegraph, January 2, 2009


Transcript of the Guardian interview with Gus van Sant at the BFI ...   Briony Hanson interviews Gus van Sant along with to screenwriter Dustin Lance Black and actor James Franco from The Guardian, January 16, 2009


Gus Van Sant | The Talks  August 21, 2012


Gus Van Sant - Wikipedia



USA  (78 mi)  1985


Mala Noche, directed by Gus Van Sant | Film review - Time Out

Van Sant's winning feature debut (made on 16mm for an incredible $25,000) tells the tale of a shabby store-boy's brief encounter with two desperate wetbacks. Walt (Streeter, excellent) spends most of his time selling liquor to the bums of Portland, Oregon. He becomes obsessed with 16-year-old cock-tease Johnny, who doesn't speak a word of American but knows the difference between 15 and 25 dollars. Walt pursues him in his dreams and through the rainy nights, but only manages to put up (yes, that way too) his gun-toting friend Pepper, who is in his turn pursued by the cops. Walt's pawky commentary brings out the equivocal nature of his fragile relationship with the two boys: he may nurse Pepper when he's ill, let Johnny swipe food when he's hungry, but as a comparatively wealthy gringo Walt is nevertheless exploiting the situation. Even so - as one sweaty scene reveals - a Mexican can still make 'white butt squeal'. Offbeat, offhand, and at times off-the-wall, this sad and funny film recalls Streetwise and Stranger Than Paradise, but in its own unabashed way is better than either.

Only The Cinema [Ed Howard]

I've always thought that there was a profound disconnection in Gus Van Sant's career between his more recent masterpieces starting with 2002's Gerry, and everything he'd made previously. Even Drugstore Cowboy and My Own Private Idaho, as worthwhile as they are, seem to have little to do with his recent spate of languid, existential tone poems — and this is to say nothing of the more commercial films he made in the intervening years. But seeing his debut feature, Mala Noche, for the first time is a truly revelatory experience in terms of Van Sant's career arc. This moody, lyrical ode to homosexual desire among the down and out in Portland is something of a missing link for those who, like me, had only seen the films Van Sant made after this point. In this film, Van Sant was already sowing the seeds that would flower into the thematic territory of films like Drugstore Cowboy, but more importantly this film represents the aesthetic foundation of Van Sant's mature style.

Evocative, elliptical, and narratively rootless, the film wanders aimlessly around a central love triangle involving a gay store clerk, Walt (Tim Streeter), and two illegal Mexican immigrants, Johnny (Doug Cooeyate) and Pepper (Ray Monge). Walt provides the film's narration, with a wry, self-deprecating wit and a knack for finding the poetic in his prosaic struggles to get laid. His first lines inform us that he wants Johnny, but he winds up sleeping with the much more readily accessible Pepper instead, while continuing to pine after his love. The film's aesthetic is dark, shadowy, its protagonists constantly lost in black with only fleeting flashes of light to illuminate their features. The high-contrast photography, truly black and white with very little gray in between, heightens the film's low-budget noir atmosphere. The noir reference serves as a metaphor for the outsider status of these characters, and the gun which gets passed between them is an icon of both death and sex.

But this should not imply that Mala Noche comes across as some kind of radical gay political statement. As in all of Van Sant's films, there are traces of social and political commentary, especially on society's treatment of its marginal and outsider figures. There's also a potent examination of race and immigration, and the sexual exploitation that can take advantage of desperation — although the issue is complicated by the question of whether Walt is exploiting his objects of desire, or whether they're exploiting him because his desire makes him need them. Of course, Van Sant never allows these political and social subtexts to overwhelm either his story or his chiaroscuro style. The film's most radical statement, in fact, is its casual acceptance of these characters' gay or borderline gay lifestyles as a simple matter of fact, without making it a point of explicit commentary. In Van Sant's later films, possibly excepting My Own Private Idaho, I've always felt that he has made homosexuality something of a peripheral matter, one facet among many in his complex aesthetic. It's an arguable subtext in Gerry, and it's given brief self-contained scenes — much mis-interpreted and endowed with greater significance by all quarters — in Last Days and Elephant.

It can also be said that Mala Noche avoids treating its gayness in the usual ways. Homosexual desire is the film's central theme, and this desire is explored in the most sumptuous, sensual manner possible, capturing the true feeling of desire and lust in the richly textured visuals. The film's most memorable scene is its only love scene, between Walt and Pepper, which Van Sant portrays in extremely tight close-ups that only rarely betray any sense of space. Instead, the scene is built around brightly lit areas of bare skin, flashes of facial expressions mingling pain and lust, bodies pressing together either fighting or loving. Surrounded by total darkness, and hidden by it, the two men come together for a night of near-violent desire, and the frisson between them is palpable on-screen in the flashing light-and-dark compositions that hardly reveal a thing. It's a deeply erotic scene, but the effect of the focus on bare skin and shadowy close-ups is to generalize this depiction of desire. In the absence of context — and without the mid-scene break for a Vaseline run — it could just as easily be a man and a woman, or two women for that matter. The important thing is all the bare skin touching, the hands grasping, the smiles and gasps, the shuffling around in the sheets. This is desire, pure and simple.

Indeed, there has hardly been any greater cinematic ode to desire than this one. Van Sant's grasp of this material is prodigious, and for a novice director he seems remarkably in control of every aspect of the film. The film's low budget occasionally shows through in its touch-and-go audio and the amateurish performances (actually its biggest asset), but the lush imagery and carefully paced visual storytelling make this an essential touchstone for all Van Sant admirers. I'd even venture to say that it's his finest film prior to his recent re-birth with Gerry, far surpassing his better-known early works.

Mala Noche (1986) - Home Video Reviews -  Sean Axmaker

Gus Van Sant's intimate black and white tale of l'amour fou has been hailed as a precursor to the American wave of queer cinema that started to swell in the late eighties. Its credentials are established in the opening lines as Walt (Tim Streeter), a counter jockey at a hole-in-the-wall liquor store, gazes upon Johnny (Doug Cooeyate), an illegal Mexican immigrant with fleshy lips, a wide, youthful grin, and a streak of juvenile machismo. "I want to drink this Mexican boy, Johnny Alonzo," he rhapsodizes in voice-over, and he spends the rest of the movie doing all he can to get next to this beautiful boy ("He says he's 18, but he's probably 16," Walt confesses). Johnny is full of attitude and sass and contempt for his gay admirer, but not too proud to take advantage of Walt's desire for his company to score a handout at the store or a turn behind the wheel of Walt's car (which he pilots with the reckless mania of a teenager on a video game).

Walt's homosexuality isn't a statement, it's a given, and the sexual politics are presented with such matter-of-fact directness that they simply become part of the cultural chasm between Walt and Johnny and the social landscape of the skid row of Van Sant's adopted Portland, Oregon, home. The film is a study in infatuation and rejection, euphoria and frustration, and Van Sant observes their dance of desire and dismissal and wary coexistence without judgment. But it's also a portrait in life on the streets, of survival on the lowest rung of the social ladder.

Mala Noche also harkens from a time when independent cinema was often regional cinema and films could grow from within a community, drawing identity and color from the crucible of local culture and the physical world of its environs. Shot for $25,000 on 16mm black-and-white film, it captures the physical and social atmosphere of Portland's run down Northwest area, of transient motels and liquor in corner stores and a homeless population loitering in the streets, with such vivid detail that you can recognize the authenticity without ever having set foot in the real life location.

Mala Noche was Van Sant's debut feature, though by his own admission it wasn't his first attempt at a feature. He shot a comedy in Los Angeles in the seventies called Alice in Hollywood, which he ended up cutting down to under an hour and then just gave up on. "It really didn't get anywhere, it wasn't that good," he confesses in a 2007 interview. It was a comedy and it really wasn't that funny." After getting some attention with a short called The Discipline of D.E., adapted from the William Burroughs short story, he headed to Portland, Oregon (where he had spent some time during his childhood, one of the many places his salesman father moved the family for his job). After meeting Portland "street poet" Walt Curtis on a film job, serving as a sound recordist on a 1979 film called Property, he read his quasi-autobiographical novel "Mala Noche" and decided to adapt his work.

Curtis was originally slated to play himself but Van Sant started having second thoughts as the shooting neared. He thought that, though Curtis is a good screen presences, "it's a little schizophrenic paying yourself" and decided to cast around. He found his Walt in Tim Streeter, who had been performing locally in a Sam Shepard. Doug Cooeyate, who looks so perfect in the part of the young Mexican immigrant Johnny, was actually a Native American high school kid from the middle class Portland suburb of Beaverton who simply showed up at a casting call. He didn't speak a word of Spanish and his dialogue was all dubbed (which explains the curious credit: Arturo Torres as the voice of Johnny). Ray Monge, who plays Johnny's buddy "Pepper," was found in a Portland boxing club.

Van Sant shot on the streets of Northwest Portland and rural areas outside the city, scouting locations on the fly and shooting as they went with a minimal crew
for the most part limited to Van Sant, cinematographer John Campbell, and sound recordist Pat Baum and the small cast. In his own words, "It was pretty unorganized." He describes his adaptation more as a sketch than a conventional script and he worked largely from storyboards. Rehearsals were minimal and lighting, limited to a small collection of spotlights and a soft fill light, was kept simple and practical. For the dusky store interiors and night scenes, it resulted in a high contrast look, a small island of hard light on the action while the rest of the image faded into inky blackness. It gives the film a dramatic palette that pushes the largely handheld camerawork and loose, improvisational performances into a state of heightened naturalism.

The 1984 production never had real theatrical distribution or a home video release until Criterion, working with Van Sant, brought it to DVD in it's "Director-Approved" edition. The high definition transfer is, in a word, gorgeous, revealing a crisply shot daytime scenes with a wide range of gray tones, and high contrast night scenes and interiors with a dynamic chiaroscuro palette. Van Sant sits down for a 24-minute interview recorded for the DVD, where he describes the origins of the project and the production of the film, and briefly talks about the culture of gay cinema of the time and the direction of his career. He describes his most recent films - Elephant, Last Days and Paranoid Park - as a return to the freedom and evocative simplicity of Mala Noche.

The disc also features Walt Curtis: The Peckerneck Poet, a 1997 documentary feature on the author of the novel Mala Noche by Portland animator and filmmaker Bill Plympton, a gallery of Gus Van Sant's storyboards, and the original trailer, which Van Sant edited himself. The accompanying booklet features a new essay by film critic Dennis Lim.

Mala Noche: Other Love   criterion essay by Dennis Lim, October 06, 2007


Mala Noche (1985) - The Criterion Collection


Mala Noche | PopMatters  Meremu C.


Mala Noche - Archive - Reverse Shot  Jeff Reichert, November 10, 2007


Jigsaw Lounge [Neil Young]


In the Beginning | Village Voice  Nathan Lee


New York Sun [Nicolas Rapold]


Mala Noche | Film Review | Slant Magazine  Rob Humanick


Surrender to the Void-[Steven Flores]